SALAAT / DAILY PRAYERS - Fiqh

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The Messenger of Allah (saw) said:  "For everything there is a face and the face of your religion is prayers. So see to it that none from amongst you damages and disfigures the face of his religion."  (Source: Biharul Anwar, Volume 82, Page 209)  &  "If Your Salaat is accepted then all your other deeds /Aamal are accepted"

Salat or Namaz is the most important and a complete system of worship in Islam. Literal meaning of salat is DUA. Considering salat as insignificant or taking it lightly (Istekhfaf-e-Salat) is a major sin. Both Quran and Ahadeeth emphasize that the salat must be given top priority in our daily life and must never be taken as a lightly or secondary thing.

(A) Holy Quran: Establish salat and do not be among mushrikeen (Surah Rum, 30:31)
(B) Holy Quran: And woe to the worshippers (namazi), who are careless in their salat, (Surah Maun, 107:3-4)
(C) Hadeeth Holy Prophet (saw) : If salat is accepted by Allah, all good deeds will be accepted, & if salat is rejected, all good deeds will be rejected.
(D) Hadeeth 6th Imam (AS): One, who considers salat as insignificant, will not receive our shafaat. (Intercession)

A person, who offers salat, but does not care about the masail (rules and laws) of salat, is like one who considers salat as insignificant. For some persons, the lack of knowledge of some masail of salat, wudu and ghusl, may be an acceptable excuse, but for many other persons, the lack of knowledge is no excuse, and the Islamic sharia may require such persons, in some cases, even to repeat the salat of whole life with the correct method.  Hence it is necessary for every Muslim to know and understand the masail of salat carefully so that he gains full benefit of this act of worship and he is also not considered as one who is careless about salat.

The Holy Prophet (saw) said: "At the (appointed) time of every prayer (Salaat), I hear a caller who calls and says: 'O children of Adam! keep up prayers in order to extinguish the fire you have lit against yourselves (by committing sins)." Mustadrak-ul-Wasail, vol.3, p.102 

  36th Greater Sin: Omitting Prayer Intentionally 

   
In order for the PRAYERS TO BE VALID/ACCEPTED KNOW ABOUT:-
TAQLEED DUES/Clothes PURIFICATION
Be aware of & do Taqleed Pray in Place / clothes / house etc
should be from money on which
Khums is not due
Be aware of Taharat & Najasat
& ensure
Wudhu, Tayamum & Ghusl

Presentation on Ghusl |Adulthood Ghusl

DOUBTS/MISTAKES Important Points on salat MORE Fiqh rules of SalaaT
-Doubts in Salat

-Doubts in prayer Ppt

- 'Sajda Sahv'

Notes on Moulana S. Hassan Lectures
- Time, Common mistakes etc
  Madressa Manual notes

Article on SAJDA

Further Aspects of Salaat:-
Mustahabat in Salaat

Recite Duas after each Salaat

Salaat on time benefits- pdf Congregation / Jamaat rules

Rules from the book Islamic Laws
<From Code of practice book>: Introduction -   General Rules  

- Question & Answers

<From Jurisprudence made easy>

Dialogue on Salaat Part -1

  Part -2

Friday Prayer Rules & Q / A  -  PPT
Friday PDF file

Salat of Ayat (signs)

 Adhaan /Iqamah & Rules  |    Qadha (Lapsed) Prayers - Easy way   |  Prayers of a Traveler
Salaat ul Ajaiz -Prayer by a challenged person -ppt  |  QA on disabled person salat

Why Prostrate on Turbah    |    Why Combine prayers

 
Improve the Quality of your Salaat
Adab us salaat - Disciplines of Prayer by Ayt. Khomeini book Different aspects of Salat-zip
 
1. Achieve Concentration
 2.
Concentration Article
Presentation on Salaat
Rediscovering Salaat lectures
The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.) said: "Say each of your prayer as if it were your last prayer". (Bihar-ul-Anwar, vol.69, p.408)
Daily Program for a believer - Salaat Assessment BOYS (pdf)  | Salah assessment Qfatima

THE INCORRECT PRAYERS Imam Al-Baqir (a.s.) narrates: One day the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.w.) was seated in the mosque when a person entered and began praying, but in a manner such that neither did he perform his ruku’ (bowing), nor his sujood (prostration) in a correct manner. Observing this, the Messenger of Allah commented: “(This person) pecks as a crow pecks. Should he die and the state of his prayers be as they are now, he shall surely not die upon my religion.” (Al-Mahajjatul Baidha, Volume 1, Page 34)
CARELESSNESS TOWARDS PRAYERS The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him and his progeny) has said: “Prayer is the pillar of your religion and one who intentionally forsakes his prayer has destroyed his religion. And one who does not guard the times of the prayers, shall be made to enter ‘Wayl’, which is a valley in Hell, as Allah, the Exalted, has said: “So woe to the praying ones, who are unmindful of their prayers.” (Biharul Anwar,Volume 82, Page 202)

The Holy Prophet [s.a.w.w.] said: "Be careful of the prayers, for, on the Day of Resurrection, when Allah the Exalted, will bring the servant (for reckoning), the first thing that He will ask him about will be the prayer. If one brings it completely, he will be
of the people of salvation, otherwise, he will be thrown into Fire."
(Bihar-ul-Anwar, vol. 82, p. 202)
OTHER IMPORTANT SPECIAL SALAT / NAMAZ from www.Duas.org
Mustahab / Nafilah & Other Salaat Tahajjud (Salat ul Lail) Night Prayer | Its Merits
Salaat of Ja'far-e-Tayyar Ghufaylah after Magrib
Salaat Mayyit  &  Salat Wahshat Sala'at of Masoomeen
Salaat for Parents Salaat of Isteghfar
Salaat Idd Sala'at of Istekhara

 

IMPORTANT POINTS OF SALAAT - Notes From Moulana Sadiq Hassan

Salat or Namaz is the most important and a complete system of worship in Islam. Literal meaning of salat is DUA. Considering salat as insignificant or taking it lightly (Istekhfaf-e-Salat) is a major sin. Both Quran and Ahadeeth emphasize that the salat must be given top priority in our daily life and must never be taken as a lightly or secondary thing.

(A) Holy Quran: Establish salat and do not be among mushrikeen (Surah Rum, 30:31)
(B) Holy Quran: And woe to the worshippers (namazi), who are careless in their salat, (Surah Maun, 107:3-4)
(C) Hadeeth Holy Prophet: If salat is accepted by Allah, all good deeds will be accepted, and if salat is rejected, all good deeds will be rejected.
(D) Hadeeth 6th Imam (AS): One, who considers salat as insignificant, will not receive our shafaat.

A person, who offers salat, but does not care about the masail (rules and laws) of salat, is like one who considers salat as insignificant. For some persons, the lack of knowledge of some masail of salat, wudu and ghusl, may be an acceptable excuse, but for many other persons, the lack of knowledge is no excuse, and the Islamic sharia may require such persons, in some cases, even to repeat the salat of whole life with the correct method.
Hence it is necessary for every Muslim to know and understand the masail of salat carefully so that he gains full benefit of this act of worship and he is also not considered as one who is careless about salat.

CONDITIONS FOR VALIDITY OF SALAT

Five conditions must be met before a wajib salat can be considered as valid (sahih):

(1) Time: The salat must be offered within the specified time
(2) Qibla: The salat must be offered towards the direction of Kaba in Makkah
(3) Clothes: The clothes in which salat is offered must be mubah (lawful), tahir and fulfil other conditions
(4) Place: The place at which salat is offered must be mubah, tahir and fulfil other conditions
(5) Taharat: The person’s body must be tahir and must have performed wudu (or ghusl if required) with mubah water
(or tayammum, if required, with mubah soil etc)

IMPORTANCE OF MUBAH IN SALAT

Mubah means lawfully obtained. The conditions of clothes, place and water (for wudu or ghusl) being mubah are extremely important because salat becomes batil (invalid) if these things are not mubah (lawfully obtained). If the income of a person is from haram sources, then the clothes, place and water obtained from such income automatically become haram and therefore salat offered using such things is batil (invalid) in most of the cases.

Fiqh Lecture # 10 Maulana Sadiq Hasan, Panjtan Ctr, Melbourne
One of the most important conditions for a thing to become mubah (lawful) is that the khums for that thing (if wajib) must have been paid.

Ignoring the condition of mubah for salat is the same as taking salat lightly or insignificant (istekhfaf) and amounts to a great sin.

If khums was wajib on the clothes you are wearing and has not been paid, and if the salat has been offered in such clothes, then the salat is batil (invalid) even if you did not know this rule. In such a case, you must repeat that salat with mubah clothes on. The same rule applies for the place or house where the salat is offered, and the water used for wudu or ghusl, and soil used for tayammum.

If khums was wajib on other items (such as food, car, gifts etc), which are not used by the person during his/her salat, and the khums has not been paid on these items, then the salat is not batil, but the salat will not be accepted until the wajib khums on these items has been paid. Hence, it is first necessary to understand the laws of khums and halal earnings before understanding the detailed masail of salat.

SOME COMMON MISTAKES IN SALAT

In Tashahhud, it is wajib to pronounce the word as "Muhammadan" and not as "Muhammadun" after the words "Ashhadu anna".

In Niyyat, the correct wording is "Qurbatan ILALLAH", and not as "Qurbatan ILLALLAH". However, salat is not affected even if this wording is pronounced incorrectly as long as the niyyat in your heart is to seek nearness (qurbat) of Allah, because the niyyat in your heart is wajib and rukn in salat and actual saying of that niyyat in words is not necessary.

MAKROOH (UNDESIRABLE) DRESS DURING SALAT

Wearing of following types of items are makrooh at anytime and during salat and will reduce the sawab of salat:

(a) Dress with pictures of a living being (animal or human)
(b) Ring or jewellery inscribed with pictures of living being
(c) Black dress except that used during azadari (mourning for Imams AS)
(d) Tattoos on the body unless it is of vulgar type

Four types of black dress are not makrooh anytime and during salat:

(a) Black turban (ammama),
(b) Black long robe (aba qaba) worn by scholars,
(c) Black socks,
(d) Black ladies chador (over garment).
It is recommended for ladies to wear some jewellery during salat.

TIMES FOR DAILY SALAT

In order to work out exact times for daily salat, it is necessary to gain knowledge of the following times: Sunset, Midnight, Dawn, Sunrise, Noon. Mujtahids differ on the definition of Midnight. Scientists differ on the definition of Dawn. For places on earth located 45 degrees above or 45 degrees below the Equator, it is very difficult to determine Dawn time.
Lecture #30 Maulana Sadiq Hasan, Panjtan Centre, Melbourne
In olden days (when clocks were not invented), minarets were constructed in mosques with the purpose of going up the top of minaret and checking out the times of salat.

Sunset is defined in two ways:
(a) Astronomical Sunset or Actual Sunset (published in media), and
(b) Islamic Sunset (which is 10 to 12 minutes after astronomical sunset or actual sunset) Midnight is the middle time between actual Sunset and Sunrise times, according to Ayatullah Khui.

Midnight
is the middle time between actual Sunset and Dawn times, according to Ayatullah Seestani, Khumaini and Khamenei.

Noon
is the middle time between Sunrise and actual Sunset according to all Mujtahids

MAGHRIB & ISHA TIMES:

(a) Maghrib salat time starts with Islamic sunset (i.e. 10-12 minutes after actual sunset).
(b) Isha salat time starts soon after offering Maghrib salat.
(c) Maghrib and Isha times remain up to Midnight
(d) It is a sin to delay Maghrib and Isha after Midnight without genuine reasons (e.g. travel)
(e) Between Midnight and Dawn, you can offer Maghrib and Isha salat with the intention of Mafiz-zimma (i.e. neither Qaza nor Ada).
(f) Maghrib and Isha becomes qaza after Dawn, and it is a sin to make salat qaza.
(g) Fazeelat time for Maghrib (with maximum sawab) remains for about 35 to 45 minutes after the start of Maghrib time
(h) Fazeelat time for Isha (with maximum sawab) starts after the Fazeelat time for Maghrib, and remains upto initial one-third part of the night.

FAJR TIME:
(a) Fajr salat time starts with Dawn.
(b) Fajr salat becomes qaza at Sunrise.

ZOHR & ASR TIMES:
(a) Zohr time starts at Noon
(b) Asr time starts soon after offering Zohr salat
(c) Zohr and Asr become qaza at actual sunset according to Ayatullah Khui and Seestani with ehtiate wajib
(d) Zohr and Asr become qaza at Islamic sunset according to Ayatullah Khomeini and Khamenei
(e) Fazeelat time for Zohr (with maximum sawab) remains for 1 to 1.5 hours after Noon time according to Ayatullah Khui.

FASTING TIME:
(a) Fasting time starts with Dawn, and finishes with Islamic Sunset (i.e. 10-12 minutes after actual Sunset) according all Mujtahids.
(b) Since it is hard to find actual Dawn, it is recommended to start fasting 10 minutes before the published earliest Fajr start time, which is generally mentioned in timetables as Imsak (when you should stop eating, drinking etc).

SOME QUESTIONS & ANSWERS RELEVANT TO SALAAT

Answer to the Question asked obtained from  AyatullahAl-Uzama Sayyid Ali Al-Husaini Al-Seestani Dama Dhilluhu

Paper # 4 RE DISABLED PERSON

Q) What is the ruling for a disabled person who offers prayers while remaining seated on the chair. Is it correct that such a person joining Namaz must in the beginning stand till Ruku of the 1st Rakaat & then perform all the actions while seated up to the end bowing wherever possible. Is it right for this person to lift the sajdagah & place it in the forehead while reciting the Dhikr of sujood or just bows more without sajdagah touching the forehead ? ( Sajdagah is on the small table infront of the Musalli all the time )

A) Your question is general which requires a detailed reply as it would apply individually according to his incapacitated position. 

In short if he is unable to stand while praying, he should sit down, & if he is unable to sit, he should lie down.  As long as a person is able to offer prayers standing, he should not sit down. For example, if the body of a person shakes, or moves when he stands, or he is obliged to lean on something, or to incline his body a bit, he should continue to offer prayers standing in whatever manner he can. But, if he cannot st& at all, he should sit upright, & offer prayers in that position.  As long as he can sit, he should not offer prayers in a lying posture, & if he cannot sit straight, he should sit in any manner he can. & if he cannot sit at all, he should lie on his right side.  If he also cannot lie on the left side then he should lie on his back with his feet facing Qibla.

For example, as your question implies, a person is praying seated on a chair with a table in front of him on which is laid Mor (Sijdagah).  As long as he is able to stand up he should do so & recite Takbiratul Ihram in a standing position & if he can continue standing up to recite the Qir’at he should continue to do so & perform Ruku & then sit down to perform Sajdah.  If he cannot continue standing up he should sit down after reciting Takbiratul Ihram & perform Ruku in a sitting position.  If he cannot stand up & recite Takbiratul Ihram then only he should recite Takbiratul Ihram in a sitting position.  If he is offering prayers in a sitting position, & after reciting Hamd & Surah, he is able to stand up & perform Ruku, he should first stand up, & then perform Ruku.  But if he cannot do so, he should perform Ruku while sitting. 

If a person cannot bow down for Ruku properly, he should lean on something & perform Ruku. & if he cannot perform Ruku even after he has leaned, he should bow down to the maximum extent he can, so that it could be customarily recognized as a Ruku. & if he cannot bend at all, he should make a sign for Ruku with his head.

If a person is supposed to make a sign with his head for Ruku is unable to do so, he should close his eyes with the niyyat of Ruku, & then recite Zikr. & for rising from Ruku, he should open his eyes. & if he is unable to do even that, he should, as a precaution, make a niyyat of Ruku in his mind, & then make a sign of Ruku with his hands & recite Zikr.

If a person cannot perform Ruku while standing, but can bend for it while sitting, he should offer prayers standing & should make a sign with his head for Ruku. & the recommended precaution is that he should offer another prayer in which he would sit down at the time of Ruku, & bow down for it.

If a person cannot find something high on which he may place the mohr, or any other allowable thing, & if he cannot find any person who would raise the mohr etc. for him, then as precaution, he should raise it with his h& & do Sajdah on it.

(As regards to raising the mohr with his h& & do Sajdah on it, Hujjatul Islam Sayyid Muhammad Rizvi has commented: The basis of your answer is correct; however, when I compared the statement in the Tawzihul Masa'il with what the Sayyid has written in Minhajus Salihiyn (which I consider to be more updated & comprehensive), it seems that the emphasis in the Minhaj is doing it by ishara rather than bring the muhr by h& to the forehead. In any case, the issue of bringing the muhr to the forehead is based on ihtiyat istihbabi, & not ihtiyat wujubi; and, therefore, I would go with the sajda by ishara as the first choice.)

If a person cannot perform Sajdah at all, he should make a sign for it with his head, & if he cannot do even that, he should make a sign with his eyes. & if he cannot make a sign even with his eyes he should, on the basis of obligatory precaution, make a sign for Sajdah with his hands etc. & should make a niyyat for Sajdah in his mind, & recite the obligatory Zikr.

Paper # 25Q] Please, advise me the doubts in prayers which make the prayers void & there is no remedy for them?

A] The following doubts make prayers void:

1] Doubts about the number of Rak'ats occurring in obligatory prayers which consist of 2 Rak'ats, like, Fajr prayers, or prayers offered by a traveler.
2] Doubts about the number of Rak'ats occurring in prayers consisting of 3 Rak'ats, that is, Maghrib prayers.  
3] Doubt occurring in prayers of 4 Rak'ats as to whether one has performed one Rak'at or more.
4] Doubt in prayers of 4 Rak'ats before going to the second Sajdah, as to whether he has performed 2 Rak'ats or more.
5] Doubts between 2 & 5 Rak'ats or between 2 & more than 5 Rak'ats.
6] Doubts between 3 & 6 Rak'ats or between 3 & more than 6 Rak'ats.
7] Doubt between 4 & 6 Rak’ats or between 4 & more than 6 Rak’ats.
If a person has one of those doubts which makes prayers void, it is better for him to break the prayers if the doubt persists. In fact, he should prolong thinking about it so that the form of namaz changes, or till he loses all hope to ascertain the situation.

Paper # 29Q. Please, advise me what are the things (or actions) while praying which would render the Namaz Makrooh?

A. 1166. It is Makrooh that a person in Namaz slightly turns his face towards right or left, an angle which would not be construed as deviation from Qibla, otherwise Namaz will be void. It is also Makrooh during prayers to shut the eyes or turn towards right or left, & to play with one's beard & hands, & to cross the fingers of one h& into those of another, & to spit.
It is also Makrooh to look at the writing of the holy Qur'an, or some other books or a ring. It is also Makrooh to become silent while reciting Surah al-Hamd, or any other Surah, or Zikr, so as to listen to some conversation. & in fact, every such act which disturbs attention & humility is Makrooh.

1167. It is Makrooh for a person to offer prayers when he is feeling drowsy, or when he restrains his urge for urinating or defecation. Similarly, it is Makrooh to offer prayers with tight socks which press the feet. There are other things also which are Makrooh in namaz. They are mentioned in detailed books on the subject.

Paper # 50PRAYERS Q] Kindly explain to me what does silently mean when the Mas’ala says that it is obligatory for a man & a woman to recite Sura al-Hamd & the other Surah SILENTLY in Dhuhr & Asr prayers & also what is the extent of the voice that should be raised or lowered by a man in the Fajr, Maghrib & Ishaa prayers?

A] In Salaatul Fajr, Maghrib & Ishaa (JAHR), when reciting the two Surahs, a man is required to raise his voice to the extent that the person next to him can hear what is being recited, as in an ordinary conversation between two persons, while in the third Rak’ah of Salaatul Maghrib & the third & fourth Rak’ah of Salaatul Ishaa & all four Rak’ah of Salatul Dhuhr & Asr (IKHFAAT) the person should hear oneself what is being recited. [For women, all their prayers are performed as IKHFAAT].
(answered by: Sheikh Fadhel Al-Sahlani, the U.S. representative of Ayatullah Al-Udhma Al-Hajj Al-Sayyid Ali Husaini Al-Seestani Dama Dhilluhu)

Q] Is it recommended or obligatory for a man to recite Surah al-Hamd & the other Surah loudly while offering Fajr, Maghrib & Isha prayers.

A] It is Wajib, but he should not raise his voice unusually high, as if he were shouting, & if he does so his prayers will be void.

Q] Can a person take wages for teaching a person the act of prayers?

A] To take wages for teaching obligatory acts of prayers is Haraam, as a precaution, & taking wages for teaching Mustahab things is permissible.

Paper # 53/25 Traveller
 

Q] As a result of expansion, some cities which used to comprise a number of townships, have become very big ones. Do you consider such cities as one (physically) or the old demarcations between its different neighborhoods should be observed? Say, you set out on a journey heading to some other destination, from the easternmost point. The time for prayer was due, while you were still within its boundaries, that is in the westernmost point. Do you perform your prayer tamam (in its entirety) or qasr (shortened form). Also, when you return to such a big city & the time for prayer was due, while you were in its outskirts, do you say your prayer qasr or tamam? & what is the ruling on fasting in such a situation?

A] As explained in the question, such a city is considered one, i.e. the rule of different towns is not applicable. Of course, the yardstick in calculating the distance is the definition of Musafir (traveler). If such a city is very big & it fulfils the definition, when the person embarks on his journey from his neighborhood, though it be inside the city, the rule of Musafir applies here. Thus, the distance is calculated from the approaches of the neighborhood of the Mukallaf. If the definition does not apply unless he gets out of the city, the end of the city should be the start of calculating the distance from the edge of tarakkhus (the point at the parameter of a town, when, for instance, Adhan “call of prayer” can be heard).

PRAYERS OF A TRAVELLER If a traveler who wants to stay at a place for ten days, has determined at the very outset, that during the period of ten days, he will travel to surrounding places up to the limit of Tarakhkhus or more, & if the period of his going & returning is so brief, that it cannot be considered as infringement of his intention of staying there for 10 days, he should offer full prayers.
But if it is considered as an infringement, then he should pray Qasr. For example, if he is away from that place for a day & a night, then that prolonged period will be breaking the intention, & he will pray Qasr. But if he was away for, say, half a day, returning by the evening, it will not be considered as breaking the intention. Of course, if he travels frequently from that place, giving an impression that he is visiting two or more places, then he will pray Qasr.
Question put forward to Maulana Sayyid Muhammad Rizvi based on the above Ruling.
Will the same Mas'ala be applicable, under the same situation, if a traveler who has decided to stay at a place for more than ten days, did not determine at the very outset, but travels to a nearby place of more than 28 miles (return) & returns the same day. For example, he travels in the morning & returns the same evening or he travels in the afternoon & returns at night. As I understand, he will be required to pray Qasr during his traveling but will continue to pray full on his return of stay at a place where he had decided to stay for more than ten days.
Answer given by Sayyid Muhammad Rizvi.
By looking at the ruling, yes, if a person did not have that intention from the very beginning & changes his plan in between, then for the remainder of his stay, he will have to pray Qasr unless the remainder days are 10 days.
Marhum Ayatullah Al-Khoei (a.r.)
If a traveler, who wants to stay at a place for ten days, has determined at the very outset that, during the period of ten days, he will go to different sides of that place up to the limit of Tarakhkhus or more, & if the period of his going & return is, for example, about one or two hours which is not usually inconsistent with ten days' stay, he should offer complete prayers. & if the period is more than that, he should, as a precautionary measure, offer shortened as well as complete prayers, & it that period is full day or the larger part of it, he should offer shortened prayers.

Paper # 62 CLOTHES IN PRAYER    

     Click here for MP3 lecture  Lec_21_17th_June_07

Q.]  If a person prays wearing dress which has been purchased with the money whose Khums has not been paid, is his prayers valid?

A.] If a person purchases a dress with the particular sum of money whose Khums has not been paid by him, then Namaz in that dress will amount to the Namaz in a dress which has been usurped.

Q]  Is the validity of Namaz adversely affected if a person prays wearing a Najis pair of socks or cap?

A] If small dresses belonging to a person offering prayers, like his socks or scalp cap, which would not ordinarily cover his private parts,  become Najis,  & if they are not made of the parts of a carcass or an animal whose meat is Haraam to eat, the prayers offered with them will be in order.  & there is also no objection if one offers prayers with a Najis ring.

Q) If a person prays with a Najis dress because of forgetfulness, is his/her prayer valid?

A) If a person forgets that his body or dress is Najis, and remembers during Namaz, or after completing Namaz, as an obligatory precaution, he should offer the prayers again, if his/her forgetting was due to carelessness. And if the time has lapsed, he should give its Qadha.

If it was not due to carelessness, and he remembers after completing the Namaz, his Namaz is valid, but if he remembers during the Namaz, then he should act as explained below:

If he has ample time at his disposal while offering prayers and he realizes during the prayers that his clothes are Najis, and he suspect that they may have been Najis before he started the prayers, he should wash it, or take it off (and in the case of body he should wash that Najasat off his body), provided that in so doing, his prayers does not become invalidated and continue his Namaz to its completion. But if he has no other dress to cover his private parts, or washing the dress or taking it off, or washing that Najasat off his body, may invalidate his Namaz, he should, as an obligatory precaution, repeat his Namaz with Pak clothes.

In the event the time at his disposal is short, under the same circumstances explained above, he should complete his Namaz in the same state, and his Namaz will be valid.
Follow up Question. What is he required to do if he only doubts whether his body or dress is Pak?
A) If he doubts whether his body or dress is Pak, and if he did not find anything Najis after investigation, and prayed, his Namaz will be valid even if he learns after Namaz that his body or dress was actually Najis. But if he did not care to investigate, then as an obligatory precaution, he will repeat the prayers. If the time has lapsed, he will give its qadha.
Follow up Question. What is the status of his prayers if person washes his dress, and becomes sure that it has become Pak, and offers his prayers with it, but learns after the prayers that it had not become Pak?
A) His prayers are in order.
Q] Can a person in Namaz carry (not wearing) Najis things with him?

A] Yes, it is permissible for him to carry Najis things, like handkerchief, key & knife. Similarly , if he has a separate Najis dress which he is carrying, it will not affect the validity of his prayers. [Note: It does not include carrying carcass of a Mayta]

 

Wearing of following types of items are makrooh at anytime and during salat and will reduce the sawab of salat:

(a) Dress with pictures of a living being (animal or human)
(b) Ring or jewellery inscribed with pictures of living being
(c) Black dress except that used during azadari (mourning for Imams AS)
(d) Tattoos on the body unless it is of vulgar type

Four types of black dress are not makrooh anytime and during salat:

(a) Black turban (ammama),
(b) Black long robe (aba qaba) worn by scholars,
(c) Black socks,
(d) Black ladies chador (over garment).
It is recommended for ladies to wear some jewellery during salat.

 

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Madressa manual notes

times of Namaz- rules 

Mushtarik( common)  times:

The time between the special times of zohr and asr is the common time of these 2 namaz. But, during this time too, zohr will be recited first, followed by asr.

Similarly the time between the special times of maghrib and isha is the common time of maghri-isha. In this time, too, maghrib will be recited first followed by isha.

 Ending time of Maghrib and Isha:

Time for isha namaz ends at midnight. If someone has not recited maghrib and isha by midnight, then he should recite maghrib-isha as soon as possible, before subh e sadiq; and without doing niyyat of ada or qaza. Under certain conditions of no-control eg sleep, forgets, the time of maghrib-isha is till subh e sadiq.  Masla 724 , 728

 Method to find out time of namaz: masla 730 , 733 

Find out the times of namaz by any one of the methods stated below:  

1.} when you are sure that the time of namaz has set in. eg, you yourself have decided the time by seeing the sky, sun, etc. nowadays there is too much light in cities and even in some villages which makes it very difficult to find out the time of subah kaazib, subah saadiq and maghrib.  

2.} from clocks and reliable namaz timing charts. Such charts are available for all cities.  

3.} from adhan of masjids or hearing about it from someone, when you are nearly sure(itminan) that the muezzin or the person who has told you knows to recognize the times of namaz..{ chk - # 730}

Rule : masla 737

If someone has not recited zohr and the special time of asr sets in, first recite asr in its special time with the niyyat of ada, then recite zohr with niyyat of qaza.

Similarly if someone has not recited maghrib and the special time of isha sets in, first recite isha with niyyat of ada, then recite maghrib without niyyat of ada or qaza.

  Chapter # 33 Satar (covering) 

Satar means to cover. In islam details of every act and ibadah have been taught. This includes those of satar. 

Satar in general :

It is wajib for every man and woman to cover his/her private parts (place of urination and passing stools) from other people and children who can understand.

In addition, it is wajib for a woman to hide her entire body, hair of the head and beautification/decoration from na mehram men. Exposing the face and the hands upto the wrist is allowed with some conditions. In certain circumstances it is necessary to cover even these parts. 

Explanation 

Mehram:  are the close relations of men and women between whom shariat has not demanded covering up eg son-mother, aunt-nephew, grandfather and granddaughter, brother-sister etc are mehram for each other.   

v Na-mehram: Besides the mehram, all men and women are na mehram of each other, even if they are close relatives eg first cousins, brother in law-sister in law etc.

Shariat demands  covering up between namehram. 

Satr in namaz :

For men: in namaz a man is expected to cover up at least both his private parts, whether there is an onlooker or not. It is better to cover from the navel to the thighs.  

Explantion: this rule shows that the namaz of children who recite namaz in underwear jaez and correct 

For women: It is wajib for a woman to cover the entire body including the hair on the  head. It is ehtiyat and sawab to cover the soles of the feet as well.

However, it is not necessary to cover that  part of the  face that is washed in wudhu, hands till the wrist, feet till the ankles. Still it is necessary to cover a little extra to ensure that the required portions have been covered

 Additional explainations:

{ # 777 – it is ehtiyat e wajib  for a woman to cover her entire body including the hair of the head even from herself. Eg simply putting a chador on the head is not enough within which she can see her neck or arms or any other part of the body. Masla 777 ( shown practically with help of namaz chadar)

Chapter # 34Qibla 

Qibla means a place to turn to. Allah has declared the ka’ba , qibla for muslims.  

Khaana e Kaaba is in the city of mecca. It is called the house of Allah. It was built by Hazrat

Ibrahim a.s. and Hazrat Ismail a.s.by the orders of Allah. The masjid surrounding the ka’ba is called “Masjidul Haram”. It means the respected masjid 

It is wajib to face the  qibla on 4 occassions:

1.} In Namaz

2.} in the state of  Ehtezaar {when the soul leaves the body at the time of death}

3.} in the grave , the dead body should be turned towards the qibla.

4.} During Zabeeha the animal should be turned towards the qibla.  

 

        It is haram to urinate or pass stools either facing the qibla(stomach & chest towards qibla) or turning the back to the qibla..( #  55 – on the basis of E.W ) 

       If a person is reciting naamaz standing, it is necessary that his face, chest, and stomach face the qibla. It is ehtiyat and sawab that the toes of feet point to the qibla. ( # 765) 


 

Chapter # 35dress of the Namazi

the dress of the recite should meet he following 6 conditions:  

Fehrist

1.} dress should be paak.

4.} it should not be made of any part of a Haraam flesh animal.

2.} dress should be mubah

5.} dress of a male should not be of pure silk.

 

3.} dress should not be made of any part of a murdaar.

6.} fress of males should not have been woven/embroidered with gold.

 

 Tashreeh: 

1.} dress should be paak : rule 787 , 801

In normal conditions namaz in a najis dress is not jaez.

 

2.} dress should bemubah : Rule 808

The dress of the namazi should not be gasbi(usurped). The dress should either belong to him or he should have the permission of the owner to use it.

 

3.} should not be made of parts of a murdar(an animal which has not been islamically slaughtered)

Eg dress made of skin of a  murdaar goat is najis and the namaz recied wearing it will be batil.

 

4.} dress should not have be made of parts of a Haram fleshed animal (those animals whose meat is forbidden for eating):masla 812 

Eg: namaz recited while wearing dress made of skin of cat, fox, rabbit etc is batil.

 

5.} Dress of men should not be of pure silk: masla 822 , 824

Namaz in a dress made of a mix of soot and silk is correct, but makrooh. (check this). Women are allowed to recite namaz wearing dess made of silk.  

 

6.} Dress of men should not be woven /embroidered with gold. masla 819

For a man reciting namaz in a dress with gold thread is batil. women are permitted to wear such a dress for namaz.

Rule :  even besides namaz, it is haramfor men to wear clothes of pure silk/ with gold.

Similarly, it is haram for me to wear rings, chains, buttons (check), spectacles made of gold. If he weras these things in nama, the namaz is batil. the articles which havebeeen declared hram by religion do not become jaez even on joyous occassions

          Rule: chk translation

on the basis of ehtiyate wajib if, in a society, a man wears a dress which is worn only by women,{ eg saari, gharaara} or a woman wears a dress which is worn only by men(eg sherwani etc)and he /she considers this to be a zeenat (beautification) and  makes it a habit of wearing such a dress, then it is haram. However, the namaz recited wearing such a dress will be correct. Masla 833

 

Mustahabdress: masla 852

Certain things are mustahab in a dress of the namaz reciter. ( acc. To fuqaha)

 

1.} white dress                           3.} applying perfume

2.} clean dress                           4.} wearing an Aqeeq ring

 

Makruh dress: masla 853

Certain things are makrooh in a dress of the namaz reciter. ( acc. To fuqaha) 

1.} black dress                          

2.} dirty dress

3.} tight fitting dress

4.} a dress/ ring with picture of a face .      

 

Chapter # 36Place of Namaz

 

The place of namaz should meet the following conditions 

List

1.} place should be mubah

4.} place should be spacious enough  

2.} place should not be moving

 5.} place of sajda should be paak

3.} it should be possible to be able to finish the namaz in that palce

6.] there should be distance between men and women

 7.} place should be nearly leveled.

 

Expalnation: 

1.} place should be mubaah: masla 854

The place of namaz should not be gasbi. The place should either belong to you, or you should have the permission of the owner to use it.

 

2.} place should not be moving :  masla 867 , 868

If you are compelled to recite namaz in a moving vehicle, plane or boat, as far as possible do not recite any zikr during jolting.

 

3.} it should be possible to finish namaz at that palce: rule  870 3rd condition tauzeeh

There should be ehtemal ( a low chance) that the recite will be able to finish the namaz there. Hence avoid reciting namaz in crowds or where the sun, water etc will interfere with the namaz.

 

4.} place should be spacious enough

There should be enough space to do the qayam, ruku, sajda properly.

 

5.} Place of sajda should be paak:  5th condition

Besides the place of sajda, if the place of namaz is najs ,it should not be so wet that it will make the body or clothes of the reciter najis. But if the place of resting the forehead in sajda is dry, but najis, still the namaz is batil.

 

6.} there should be distance between man and women: masla 874 , 875

If men and women are reciting namaz in one place eg in a room, then the woman should either stand more than 10 handspans in front of him, or (on basis of ehtiyate wajib) she should stand so much behind him that the place on the floor her forehead touches in sajda should not be beyond the place where the man puts his knees on the floor for sajda.

Note that such situations can often arise in homes when brother-sister, husband –wife, recite namaz at the same time.

  

7.} place should be nearly levelled: Rule  876 , 877

 the difference in the height or the slope  of the place of standing and doing sajda should not be less or more than 4 joined fingers.

 

Places mustahab for namaz. : rule  880

Shariyat has stressed a lot that namz should be recited in masajids. The best amongst the masajids is masjidul haram. After this in order come masjidun nabawi,masjid e koofa, masjid e baytul muqaddas, the central masjid of every city, masjid of the locality, masjid of the bazaar.

 For women it is better to pray at a place where she will be more protected from na mehram, whether such a place is a masjid, her house or any other place. Rule  881 , 855

  

Chapter # 37

Waajibaat e Namaz

 

Maslas : 929 ,930 , 935 , 945 , 946 .965 ,992 , 1009 , 1032 , 1033 ,1087 , 1095 ,1101

 

Things which must be said & done in namaz are called wajibate namaz.

In all wajibate namaz are 11, of whch 5 are called ruknay namaz and the remaining 6 are called ghair e rukn. Besides wajibat e naaz other actions (eg qunoot) and recitations or azkaar (eg istighfar) are mustahab

 

explanation:

 

Waajibaat e Rukni:

These 5 wajibaat namz are rukn. Purposely doing these in exess or omitting these will make namaz batil. If these are left out by mistake, still the namaz is batil . Doing an extra ruku (doing 2 ruku instead of one in 1 rakat), by mistake, will make namaz batil. doing 2 extra sajdas, by mistake, in any one rakat will also make the naamz batil, on basis of ehtiyate wajib (doing 4 sajda instead of 2 in any 1 rakat)

 

Waajibaat e Ghair e Rukni:

These are the wajibaat which when not done purposely will make namaz batil. naaz is still correct of you omit these by mistake. But in this case you have to follow the specific rules ..?

. Magar is surat may jo okum diye gaye hai in par amal karna hoga.

  

List:

 

Waajibaat e Rukni;

1.} Niyyat

2.} Takbeeratul ehraam and its qayam

3.} Qayam connected to the Ruku {meaning you have to go to ruku from qayam}

4.} Ruku

5.} Sujood

 

Waajibaat e Ghair e Rukni:

  6.} Qirat and Qayam while reciting qirat

  7.} Zikr e Ruku, Zikr e Sujood

  8.} Tashahud

  9.} Salaam

10.} Tarteeb

11.} Muwaalaat

 

 

{See chart of ‘wajibaat e namaz’ next pg # 34}