KHUMS -Religious Tax

Khums" literally means "one-fifth or 20%". In Islamic legal terminology, it means "one-fifth of certain items which a person acquires as wealth, and which must be paid as an Islamic tax".

The Quran mentions it in the following verse:
Know that whatever of a thing you acquire, a fifth of it is for Allah, for the Messenger, for the near relative, and the orphans, the needy, and the wayfarer. (8:41)

Khums Laws from new Islamic Laws book 2015 pdf New 
Booklet on Khums   By Moulana Sayyid Muhammad Rizvi |  Seminar   Video
Notes on Khums Fiqh lectures    By Moulana Sadiq Hassan
Fatwa - Khums Giver to insist on Marja sreciept (www.imam-us.org)

Download Zip File from here containing :-

      a) A booklet on Khums By Moulana Sayyid Muhammad Rizvi |  Seminar mp3  Video
      b) Relevant Extracts from books Jurisprudence made easy / Contemporary rulings / Code of Practice for Muslims in the west / Current legal issues – by Ayt. Seestani (h)
      c) Relevant Extracts from Islamic laws book of Ayt. Seestani (h)
      d) Notes on Fiqh lectures in Australia on Khums by Moulana Sadiq Hassan
 Khums on assets  |    ' Khums considerations' new
  -Some questions & answers on Vakil/Khums use 
A critique of the booklet 'Questions on Khums' Jabir Chandoo pdf 
- Download Pdf Urdu file - 100 Q&A on Khums by Ayatullah Bashir Najafi  
 - Draft Index of Khums Book project proposed

Extract Inquiries About Shi'a Islam  Sayed Moustafa al-Qazwini

Khums in Islam

Khums is one of the pillars of Islam which was ordained by Allah and practiced during the life of the Messenger of Allah. Khums means “onefifth,”and indicates that one fifth of a person's excess income has to be  dedicated, according to the Quran, for the following, “And know that whatever profit you make, verily, one-fifth of it is assigned to Allah and to the Messenger and to his family and also the orphans, the destitute,and the wayfarer, if you have believed in Allah, and in that which We sent down to our servant Muhammad.”[286]

Khums, in brief, means paying one-fifth of the surplus of one's income after taking away the expenses of the person and his dependants. It consists of two equal parts: one being the share of the Imam, meaning that this part goes for constructing masjids, Islamic seminaries, Islamic schools, libraries, hospitals or clinics, orphanages, printing of the Noble Quran, hadith books, Islamic books and lectures, and others things which will benefit, defend, or propagate Islam. The second part is the portion for the poor sayyids (descendants of the Prophet), since they are banned from receiving zakat (charity).

Many historical references from different schools of thought mention that the khums existed during the time of the Prophet and was banned during the time of the first and second caliphs.[287] The interpretation by the Ahlul Bayt of the word ”ghanimtum” in the Quran, chapter 8,verse 41 is “everything you gained”—whether from war, work, trade, or other sources, since Islam's history testifies that the Prophet took out one-fifth from the war booty, and also from assets other than the war booty during peacetime.[288] Other non-Shi'a scholars have supported this position.[289]

[286] Noble Quran, 8:41

[287] Sunan al-Bayhaqi, Vol. 6, “Sahm Dhil Qurba”; Musnad al-Shafi‘i, “al-Fay’”, 187; Sunan Abu Dawud, Vol. 18, “al-Khums”; MusnadAhmad ibn Hanbal, Vol. 1, 320; al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Kanz al-Ummal,Vol. 2, 305; Lisan al-Mizan, Vol. 6, 148; Huliyat Abu Nu‘aym, Vol. 2, 205;Sahih Muslim, Vol. 5, 198; Sunan al-Nisa’i, 177 and 178; Tafsir al-Tabari,Vol. 10, 5

[288] See for further details: Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Vol. 1,314; Sunan ibn Majah, 839

[289] al-Qadi Abu Yusuf, Kitab al-Kharaj, 25-27

QUESTIONS & ANSWERS on Vakil (Representative) & Khums payment/ usage
 

585. Question: What is the limit that you have allowed your agents and representatives (wukalã’) to utilize for their personal use from the religious dues that they collect [from the people]?

Answer: In our ijãzas (authorizations for apportioning the religious dues), we have mentioned that the authorized person is allowed to utilize, for example, one-third or half of whatever he collects of religious dues for the purposes that have been defined by the shari‘a. This does not mean that the percentage mentioned [in the ijãza] is especially for the use of the authorized person himself, because it could happen at times that the use of that due would not apply to him at all — for example, if he is a sayyid while the religious dues that he has collected are from the charity of non-sayyid or other charities like it.

In the light of this, if the authorized person considers himself —in keeping with Allãh as the witness in this matter— eligible for the religious dues in accordance with the conditions mentioned in the Manual of Islamic Laws —for example, if he is needy in the religious definition and is among those who deserve the right of zakãt or sihm-e sãdãt or radd madhãlim etc— he is allowed to take from it according to his need and proportionate to his status and not more than that.

Similarly, if he is providing general religious services and strives for upholding the word of Islam, he deserves the sihm-e Imãm (a.s.) according to the level of his work and the service that he does for Islam.

But, if he is not spending the religious due that he has collected, he must utilize the percentage mentioned [in the ijãza] in its appropriate causes as defined by the shari‘a.

586. Question: If a person has doubts about the integrity of a representative of the marja‘ as a result of alleged misappropriation of religious dues;
  (a) Is he allowed to talk about it to other people, even if he is not certain about the truth of the allegations levelled against the representative? What if he is certain about them?
  (b) Is he allowed to still pay his religious dues to that representative as long as he is uncertain about his not being trustworthy?

Answer:
  (a) It is not permissible for him [to talk to the others about it] in both situations. In the second case [of certainty], he can inform the marja‘ directly in complete confidence about the real situation so that the marja‘ may take whatever action he deems appropriate.
  (b) He should rather pay his religious dues to a representative who is known for his integrity and honesty in acting according to his ijãza, i.e. in using some portion of what he has collected of it in their appropriate causes as mentioned earlier and sending the rest to the marja‘.

587. Question: Is it permissible to use the sihm-e Imãm (a.s.) without seeking the permission of the marja‘ if a person can ascertain the need of any kind for its use with which the Imam (a.s.) would be pleased?

Answer: It is not permissible; and one cannot attain the approval of the Imam (a.s.) by using his portion of the khums without seeking the permission of the most learned marja‘ —in that it is possible that the marja‘’s permission is part of the approval of the Imam (a.s.).

588. Question: Is it permissible to use the sihm-e Imam (a.s.) in charitable projects while there are tens of thousands of believers who are in need of bread, cloths, etc.?

Answer: In using the sihm-e Imam (a.s.), it is important to consider the principle of priorities. It is a matter of obligatory precaution, the determination of “most important vis-à-vis the more important” should be left to the discretion of the most learned jurist who is well informed about the general situation.

Regarding Claims of Agency (Wikalah)
__________________________________________

Alsalam Alaikum Dear Brothers & Sisters

 

Religious dues are an important pillar in the building process and advancement of society, and in advancing educational and strategic projects that will develop the community. For those reasons the Prophet (saw) said: "Islam did not stand except for the wealth of Khadija." 

 

But many problems and questions have been emerging regarding the performance of this worship (such as moving Khums money to another place, disposing of it personally, turning it over to non-credible sources, and the like), leading to much confusion. And, unfortunately, we see some of the believers failing to recognize these issues or failing to prevent against them, which may lead some to neglect performing their religious duty or to the discounting of these worships on the Day of Judgment. This in turn becomes an obstacle to the development of religious projects, and to tending to the needs of the poor and the needy.

 

To that end, the office of His Eminence Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Ali al-Sistani has taken the initiative to clarify the religious rulings regarding the topic, so that it can help with the progress of the community and to perform its duty of informing the public. 

 

We ask God Almighty to grant success to the faithful, to bless them in their work, and to guide our efforts to build and advance this community.

 

__________________________________________________________________

 

In the Name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful

 

To the Office of Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Al-Sistani:

 

May the Peace, Mercy and Blessings of God be upon you.

 

We kindly ask you to answer the following questions: 

 

1. Assuming that a person was authorized by his eminence, Sayyid Al-Sistani, to spend the "Imam's share" (sahm-ul-imam) which is due of the person's khums money:  

 

A. Is it permissible to spend it on any needy person whom the person wants to help?

Answer: In His Name, the Most High. The person cannot spend it on anything but securing the basic and necessary needs of religiously practicing believers, including food, medical treatment, and the like.

B. Is it permissible to delegate another person in spending it, by giving the Islamic dues to another person and authorizing that person to identify those in need as well as the amount to give them? 

Answer: The person is not allowed to do this.

 

C. Is it permissible to transfer it to another country? 

Answer: The person is not allowed to do this unless the person has eligible relatives in that country. 

 

2. Is a religiously responsible person (one who is Mukallaf)relieved of the religious responsibility if he/she paid his/her Islamic dues to a person whom he/she believed was eligible but then turned out not to be? 

Answer: The person is not relieved of the religious responsibility if he/she fell short in checking out the condition of the recipient. Rather, as a matter of obligatory precaution (ihtiyat luzumi), the person is not relieved of the religious responsibility even if he/she did not fall short in checking out the condition of the recipient. 

 

3. There are some individuals who claim agency (wakalat) on behalf of his eminence, Sayyid Al-Sistani, or that they have an official recommendation and trustworthiness letter (e'temadiyya) from his office, or that they are connected to you in some other way. These individuals accept the Islamic dues from believers and, in return, they do not give them a receipt issued from his eminence's office. Is one who has to pay his/her Islamic dues relieved of the religious responsibility by paying the dues to these individuals? 

Answer: The person is not relieved of the religious responsibility by doing so, and Allah is the Guide.

 

Sahib Kareem,  

9 Rabi' ul-Awwal 1433 AH

 

Stamped:

The Office of Sayyid Sistani

An-Najaf ul-Ashraf

 

Copy of signed arabic original is here http://www.sistani.org/index.php?p=320138&id=473

circulated by www.Imam-us.org

 

Guidance of Ayatullah Al Udhama Ali Hussein Seestani on Khums Usage :

“It is highly recommended that these (khums) funds & spent with the clear intention that it is on behalf of the Imam (AS). It is incumbent to maintain priority of importance – the more important ones to be addressed first. In these times, the most important &a in which Sehme Imam (AS) can be spent is to establish the correct practice of religion, propagate the divine message, spread the teachings of our religion & to provide & cover for the costs of the learned people who spend their time in learning. They have dedicated their lives to teaching the ignorant, guiding the misled, advising the Believers, counseling the aggrieved & many more such activities that contribute to the promotion of their faith & perfection of their own selves allowing them to gain proximity to the Almighty.”

Minhajus Swaliheen
Page 411 Rule No. 1265

Payment of Sehme Sadaat

Payment of Sehme Sadaat :There are conditions for a person to be able to recieve Sehme Sadaat eg ensuring Sayyed /poor etc. Hence it is better to pay this amount too to the Representative of your Marja, so that the responsibility is not on you for this wajib disbursement.Additionally there appears to be no benefit ( or extra sawab/reward ) of disbursing this by oneself

 

 

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FROM NEW ISLAMIC LAW BOOK by World-federation.org

Ruling 1768. Khums becomes obligatory (wājib) on seven things:

1. profit from earnings;

2. minerals;

3. treasure troves;

4. lawful (halāl) property that has become mixed with unlawful (harām) property;

5. precious stones that are acquired by underwater diving;

6. spoils of war;

7. land that a dhimmī1 purchases from a Muslim, based on the well-known (mashhūr) juristic opinion.

The laws (ahkām) of these will now be mentioned in detail.

1. PROFIT FROM EARNINGS

Ruling 1769. Whenever a person acquires property by means of trade, industry, or any other form of earning – even if, for example, he performs prayers (salāh) and keeps fasts (sawm) of a deceased person and with the wages he receives from that he acquires some property – then, in the event that it exceeds his and his family’s annual living expenses, he must pay khums – i.e. one-fifth – of it in accordance with the instructions that will be mentioned later.

Ruling 1770. If a person acquires property without earning it – for example, he is gifted something – then, with the exception of the cases mentioned in the next ruling, he must pay khums on it provided that it exceeds his living expenses for one year.

Ruling 1771. Khums is not liable on the dowry (mahr) that a wife receives, nor on the property that a husband receives in exchange for a khul’2 divorce, nor on blood money (diyah) that one receives. The same applies to the inheritance that one receives in accordance with those laws of inheritance that are considered valid. Therefore, if a Shia Muslim inherits property in another way, such as by ta’sīb,3 then that property is considered to be a gain and khums must be paid on it. Similarly, if a person inherits from an unexpected source that is neither from his father nor his son, then based on obligatory precaution (al-ihtiyāt al-wājib), he must pay khums on the inheritance if it exceeds his living expenses for one year.

Ruling 1772. If a person inherits some property and knows that the person from whom he inherited it did not pay khums on it, he must pay khums on it. Similarly, if that property itself is not liable for khums but the heir knows that the person from whom he inherited it owed some khums, he must pay khums on it from the deceased’s estate. However, in both cases, if the person from whom he inherited it did not believe in paying khums or never paid it, then it is not necessary for the heir to pay the khums owed by the deceased.

Ruling 1773. If a person saves money on his living expenses for the year by being frugal, he must still pay khums on it.

Ruling 1774. If a person’s entire living expenses are paid by someone else, he must pay khums on his entire earnings.

Ruling 1775. If someone gives some property to particular persons – for example, he gives his children some property as a charitable endowment (waqf ) – in the event that the property is farmed or trees are planted on it, and something is earned from it, and the earnings exceed their living expenses for one year, then those persons must pay khums on the extra earnings. Similarly, if they profit from the property in some other way – for example, they hire it out (ijārah) – they must pay khums on the amount that exceeds their living expenses for one year.

Ruling 1776. If the property that a poor person ( faqīr) has received from obligatory charitable payments (sadaqah) – such as recompense (kaffārah) and radd al-mazālim4 – or, if he has received it from recommended (mustahabb) sadaqah, and if that property exceeds his living expenses for one year or he acquires profit from it – for example, he acquires fruit from a tree that was given to him – and that profit exceeds his living expenses for one year, then based on obligatory precaution, he must pay khums on it. However, if he receives some property as khums or alms ta x (za kat), being someone entitled (mustahiqq) to receive it, then it is not necessary for him to pay khums on the property itself; but if the profit that accrues from it exceeds his living expenses for one year, then the profit is liable for khums.

Ruling 1777. If a person purchases something with the actual money on which khums has not been paid, i.e. he tells the seller that he is purchasing the item with that money,5 then, in the event that the seller is a Twelver (Ithnā ‘Asharī) Shia, the entire transaction is valid (sahīh), and the item that has been purchased with the money is liable for khums; and there is no need to obtain permission or authorisation from a fully qualified jurist (al-hākim al-shar’ī).

Ruling 1778. If a person purchases something and after agreeing the transaction he pays for it with money on which khums has not been paid,6 the transaction is valid but he will be indebted to those entitled (mustahiqqūn) to receive khums for the khums on the money he paid to the seller.

Ruling 1779. If a Twelver Shia Muslim purchases something on which khums has not been paid, the seller is liable for its khums, not the buyer.

Ruling 1780. If a person gifts something to a Twelver Shia Muslim on which khums has not been paid, the benefactor is liable for its khums, not the beneficiary.

Ruling 1781. If a person acquires some property from a disbeliever (kāfir), or from someone who does not believe in paying khums, or from someone who does not pay khums, it is not obligatory on him to pay khums on it.

Ruling 1782. If a businessman, merchant, craftsman, clerk etc. starts trading or working, then after the passing of one year, he must pay khums on the amount that exceeds his living expenses for the year. The same applies to a preacher etc., even if his income is earned at certain times of the year, provided that the income is sufficient to meet most of his living expenses for the year. As for someone who does not have an occupation by which he can earn a living and who receives help from the government or from people, or someone who incidentally acquires some profit, such persons must pay khums on the amount that exceeds their living expenses for the year after one year has passed from the time they acquired the profit. Therefore, [for the purposes of khums] they can calculate a different year for each amount.

Ruling 1783. During the year, a person can pay khums on his profit whenever he acquires it, and it is also permitted (jā’iz) for him to delay paying khums until the end of the year. However, if he knows that he will not need it until the end of the year, then based on obligatory precaution, he must pay khums on it immediately. Furthermore, there is no problem if one adopts the solar year for the payment of khums.

Ruling 1784. If a person makes a profit and he dies during the year, his living expenses until the time of his death must be deducted from the profit, and thereafter khums must be paid immediately on the balance.

Ruling 1785. If the price of a commodity that a person has purchased for the purposes of business rises, and if the person does not sell it and its price falls during the same year, then khums on the amount of increase in the price is not obligatory on him.

Ruling 1786. If the price of a commodity that a person has purchased for the purposes of business rises, and if the person does not sell it until after the year finishes in the hope that the price will rise, and if in actual fact the price falls, then based on obligatory precaution, it is obligatory on him to pay khums on the amount of increase in the price.

Ruling 1787. If a person has purchased property that was not for business and he has paid khums on it, in the event that its price rises and he sells it, he must pay khums on the amount that has increased in price and which exceeds his living expenses for one year. Similarly, if, for example, a tree bears fruit, or a sheep that is kept for its meat becomes fat, one must pay khums on the excess gain.

Ruling 1788. If a person creates a garden with money on which he has paid khums or which is not liable for khums, and if he wants to sell it after its price appreciates, he must pay khums on the fruits, and on the growth of the trees and shrubs that were already growing or that he planted, and on the dry branches that can be pruned and used, and on the increase in the price of the garden. However, if his intention is to sell the fruit of the trees and to benefit from their value, then khums is not obligatory on the increase in price and the rest is liable for khums.

Ruling 1789. If a person plants willows, planes, or similar trees, he must pay khums every year on their growth. Similarly, the branches of trees that are usually pruned every year, if [they are sold and the income] exceeds his living expenses for one year, he must pay khums on them.

Ruling 1790. A person who has a number of lines of business – for example, with his capital he has bought [and trades in] sugar and rice – in the event that all the lines of his business are the same in business matters such as income and outcome, book keeping, and profit and loss, he must pay khums on the amount that exceeds his living expenses for one year. In the event that he gains profit from one line and a loss from another, he can offset the loss from that line with the profit from the other. However, if he has two different lines of business – for example, he trades as well as farms – or, if he has one line of business but the profit and loss are calculated separately from each other, then in these two cases, he cannot, based on obligatory precaution, offset the loss of one with the profit of the other.

Ruling 1791. A person can deduct from his profit the living expenses he incurs in making profit – such as brokerage and transportation costs – and the same applies to any damage done to his tools and equipment, and it is not necessary for him to pay khums on that amount.

Ruling 1792. The amount a person spends from his profit during the year on food, clothing, furniture, the purchase of a house, the wedding of his son, the trousseau of his daughter, ziyārah,7 and suchlike, is not liable for khums provided that the amount spent is not beyond his status.

Ruling 1793. The amount one spends on a vow (nadhr) and kaffārah is considered to be part of his annual living expenses. Similarly, property that one gives to someone as a gift or prize is also considered to be part of his annual living expenses provided that it is not beyond his status.

Ruling 1794. If it is common practice [where the person lives] for a person to acquire the trousseau for his daughter gradually over a number of years, and if he does not acquire the trousseau it would be unbefitting of his status – albeit because he was unable to acquire it all at the required time – and if during the year he purchases some of the trousseau from the profit of that year and his purchases do not exceed his status, and if gathering that amount in one year would be commonly considered to be part of his normal annual expenditure, in such a case, it is not obligatory on him to pay khums on it. However, if his purchases exceed his status or he acquires the trousseau next year from the profit of the current year, then he must pay khums on it.

Ruling 1795. The expenses incurred for hajj and other ziyārahs are considered to be part of one’s living expenses for the year; and if his journey is prolonged until part of the following year, he must pay khums on what he spends [from the previous year’s profits] in the second year.

Ruling 1796. With regard to someone who has earned profit from trade, business, or other means, if he owns some other property on which khums is not obligatory, he can calculate his living expenses for the year only from the profit he has earned.

Ruling 1797. If the provisions that a person purchases from his profit of the year are surplus to his needs at the end of the year, he must pay khums on them. And in the event that he wants to pay its monetary value instead, then, if it has increased since the time he bought the provisions, he must calculate the khums based on the price at the end of the year.

Ruling 1798. If before paying khums a person purchases household furniture with the profit earned by him, it is not necessary for him to pay khums on the items if they are no longer needed after the year end. Similarly, the items are not liable for khums if they are not needed during the year provided that they are items that are usually kept for succeeding years, such as winter and summer clothes. Apart from these types of items, if they are not needed during the year, the obligatory precaution is that one must pay khums on them. As for the jewellery of a woman who no longer uses them for adornment, it is not liable for khums.

Ruling 1799. If a person does not make any profit in a year, he cannot deduct his expenses for that year from the profit he makes in the following year.

Ruling 1800. If a person does not make any profit at the beginning of a year and spends out of his capital, but then makes some profit before the year’s end, he can deduct the amount he had taken from his capital from the profit he earned.

Ruling 1801. If part of one’s capital is lost in business and similar activities, he can deduct the lost amount from the profit made in the same year.

Ruling 1802. If some property other than one’s capital is lost and he needs that item in the same year, he can acquire it during the year from his profit and it is not liable for khums.

Ruling 1803. If a person does not make a profit at the end of a year and borrows money in order to meet his living expenses, he cannot deduct the borrowed amount from the profit made by him in succeeding years and thereby not pay khums on the profit. However, if he borrows money during the year in order to meet his living expenses and he makes a profit before the year’s end, he can deduct the borrowed amount from his profit. Similarly, in the first case, he can repay the borrowed amount from gains made during the year and that amount is not liable for khums.

Ruling 1804. If a person borrows money in order to increase his wealth or to purchase something that he does not need, and if he repays the loan from the profit he acquires in that year without paying khums, he must pay khums on the property after the khums year end unless the money that he borrowed or the item that he purchased from the loan money perishes during the year.

Ruling 1805. A person can pay the khums of an item that is liable for khums from the item itself, or he can pay the monetary value of the khums that has become obligatory. However, if he wants to give something else on which khums has not become obligatory, then this is problematic (mahall al-ishkāl) [i.e. based on obligatory precaution, he cannot do this],8 unless he does so with the permission of a fully qualified jurist.

Ruling 1806. If a person’s property becomes liable for khums and a year has passed, he cannot have disposal over that property until he pays khums on it.

Ruling 1807. A person who owes khums cannot take responsibility for it – meaning that he cannot regard himself as being indebted to those entitled to receive it – yet still have disposal over his entire wealth. And in the event that he uses the wealth and it is lost, [not only will he have committed a sin but he will still be deemed responsible and] he must pay khums on it.

Ruling 1808. If a person who owes khums makes an interchange settlement9 with a fully qualified jurist and takes responsibility for it, he can have disposal over his entire property; and the profit he earns from it afterwards belongs to him; he must, however, gradually repay the debt in a manner that is not careless.

Ruling 1809. If a person who is a partner with someone else pays khums on his profit but his partner does not, and in the following year his partner offers his property on which khums has not been paid as capital for the partnership, the first partner – supposing he is a Twelver Shia – can have disposal over the joint property.

Ruling 1810. If a child who is a minor (saghīr) acquires some profit, albeit from gifts, and if during the year the profit is not used for the child’s living expenses, it becomes liable for khums and it is obligatory on the guardian (walī) of the child to pay khums on it. In the event that the guardian does not pay it, it is obligatory on the child to pay khums on it after he reaches the age of legal responsibility (becomes bāligh).

Ruling 1811. If a person who acquires property doubts (i.e. has a shakk) whether the former owner has paid khums on it or not, he can still have disposal over the property. In fact, even if the new owner is certain (i.e. he has yaqīn) that the former owner has not paid khums on it, then, if the former owner is someone who does not pay khums and the new owner is a Twelver Shia, he can have disposal over it.

Ruling 1812. If a person purchases something with the profit earned by him during the year, and if that item cannot be considered to be necessary and part of his living expenses for a year, it is obligatory on him to pay khums on it at the end of the year. In the event that he does not pay khums on it and the value of the property increases, he must pay khums on its current value.

Ruling 1813. If a person purchases something with money on which khums has not been paid for a year [as a non-specified undertaking, which is explained in the first footnote pertaining to Ruling 807], and if its price increases, then, in the event that he did not intend to buy the item as an investment and to sell it when its price increases – for example, he purchases land for farming [and not to sell once its price increases] – he must pay khums on the purchase price. However, if, for example, he gives the seller the actual money on which khums has not been paid and tells him that he is purchasing the item with that money,10 then he must pay khums on the current value of the item.

Ruling 1814. If someone has not paid khums from the time he became legally obliged to fulfil religious duties, or if he has not paid khums for a period of time – for example, a number of years – then, if during the year he purchases something that he does not need from profit made by trading and one year passes from the time he started trading – or, if he is not a trader and one year passes from the time he made the profit – he must pay khums on the item. However, if he purchases household furniture and other items that he needs in accordance with his status, it is not necessary for him to pay khums on them provided that he knows that he purchased them during the year in which he made a profit, and he purchased them with the same year’s profit, and he used them in the same year. And if he does not know this, then based on obligatory precaution, he must arrive at a settlement (musālahah) with a fully qualified jurist on an amount that is proportionate to the probability; for example, if he deems it 50% probable that khums on the items is obligatory, then he must pay khums on that 50%.

2. MINERALS

Ruling 1815. Minerals such as gold, silver, lead, copper, iron, oil, coal, turquoise (fīrūzah), agate (‘aqīq), alum, salt, and others, are considered to be anfāl, i.e. they belong to the Imam (‘A). However, if someone extracts them and there is no legal obstacle, he can own them; and in the event that the mineral’s value reaches the taxable limit (nisāb), he must pay khums on it.

Ruling 1816. The nisāb for minerals is fifteen common (sayrafī ) mithqāls11 of coined gold, i.e. if the value of a mineral that is extracted from a mine reaches fifteen common mithqāls of coined gold after deducting the costs for extracting it, then the subsequent expenses – such as the costs for purifying it – are subtracted and khums must be paid on the remainder.

Ruling 1817. When the value of a mineral that has been extracted from a mine does not reach fifteen common mithqāls of coined gold, khums on it becomes necessary only when it – either on its own or in combination with one’s other profits – exceeds his living expenses for one year.

Ruling 1818. Based on obligatory precaution, the rules (ahkām) of minerals also apply to chalk and lime. Therefore, if their value reaches the nisāb, one must pay khums on them without deducting his living expenses for a year from their value.

Ruling 1819. A person who acquires something from a mine must pay khums on it, irrespective of whether the mine is over the ground or under it, or whether it is located on land owned by him or in a place that does not have an owner.

Ruling 1820. If a person does not know whether or not the value of the mineral he has extracted from a mine reaches fifteen common mithqāls of coined gold, the obligatory precaution is that if it is possible, he must ascertain its value by weighing it or by some other way; and if this is not possible, then khums is not obligatory on him.

Ruling 1821. If a few persons extract something, in the event that its total value reaches fifteen common mithqāls of coined gold but the share of each person does not reach that value, it is not liable for khums.

Ruling 1822. If by digging, a person extracts a mineral from under some land that belongs to someone whose permission he did not obtain, the well-known (mashhūr) juristic opinion is that whatever is acquired from that belongs to the owner of the land. However, this is problematic and the obligatory precaution is that they arrive at a settlement. And in the event that they are not willing to arrive at a settlement, they must refer to a fully qualified jurist (al-hākim al-shar’ī) to settle the dispute.

3. TREASURE TROVES

Ruling 1823. A treasure trove is moveable property that has been concealed and is not within the reach of people; and it is hidden underground, or in a tree, mountain, or wall; and its being there is not normal.

Ruling 1824. If a person finds a treasure trove on land that does not belong to anyone or which is barren, and he becomes the owner of it by making it fertile, he can take the treasure trove for himself but he must pay khums on it.

Ruling 1825. The nisāb for treasure troves is 105 mithqāls of coined silver or fifteen mithqāls of coined gold; i.e. if the value of the treasure trove is equal to either of these two amounts, then khums becomes obligatory on it.

Ruling 1826. If a person finds a treasure trove on land that he has purchased from someone or on land over which he has disposal on account of renting it and suchlike, and if that treasure trove does not legally (shar’an) belong to a Muslim or to a dhimmī,12 or if it does then it was such a long time ago that he is unable to ascertain whether or not there is an heir for it, in such a case, he can take the treasure trove for himself but he must pay khums on it. And if he deems it rationally probable that the treasure belongs to the previous owner, then in case the previous owner had disposal over the land, the treasure trove, or its location as a result of owning the land, he must inform him. Thereafter, if the previous owner makes a claim over the treasure trove, he must return it to him, and if he does not make a claim over it, he must inform the person who owned the land before the previous owner and who had disposal over it, and so on with regard to all the previous owners who had such disposal. And if none of them makes a claim over the treasure trove and the present owner does not know whether or not it once (not so long ago in the distant past) belonged to a Muslim or to a dhimmī, he can take it for himself but he must pay khums on it.

Ruling 1827. If a person finds treasure troves in a number of places and their total value is 105 mithqāls of silver or fifteen mithqāls of gold, he must pay khums on them. However, if he finds the treasure troves at different times, then if there was not a long interval between finding them, the value of all of them together must be calculated; but if there was a long interval, then each one must be calculated separately.

Ruling 1828. If two people find a treasure trove which has a total value that reaches 105 mithqāls of silver or fifteen mithqāls of gold but their individual shares do not come to that amount, it is not necessary for them to pay khums on it.

Ruling 1829. If a person purchases an animal and finds some property in its stomach, in the event that he deems it probable that it belongs to the seller or to the previous owner, and they had disposal over the animal and over the object that was found in the animal’s stomach, he must inform them about it. Thereafter, if he does not find an owner for it, in the event that its value reaches the nisāb of a treasure trove, he must pay khums on it. In fact, based on obligatory precaution, he must pay khums on it even if its value is less than the nisāb and the rest is his property. This rule also applies to fish etc., provided that it was looked after in a particular place and somebody undertook to feed it. However, if the fish was caught from the sea or from a river, it is not necessary to inform anyone.

4. LAWFUL PROPERTY THAT HAS BECOME MIXED WITH UNLAWFUL PROPERTY

Ruling 1830. If lawful property has become mixed with unlawful property in a way that a person cannot distinguish one from the other, and if the owner and the quantity of the unlawful property are not known, and if one does not know whether the quantity of the unlawful property is less or more than one-fifth of the entire property, then by paying khums on it, it becomes lawful; and based on obligatory precaution, the khums must be given to someone who is entitled to receive both khums and radd al-mazālim.

Ruling 1831. If lawful property becomes mixed with unlawful property and one knows the quantity of unlawful property – irrespective of whether it is more or less than khums – but he does not know who its owner is, he must give away that quantity with the intention of sadaqah on behalf of its owner; and the obligatory precaution is that he must first obtain permission from a fully qualified jurist.

Ruling 1832. If lawful property becomes mixed with unlawful property and one does not know the quantity of the unlawful property but does know who its owner is, in the event that the person and the owner cannot come to a mutual agreement [as to the quantity of the unlawful property], the person must give the owner a quantity that he is certain is his. In fact, if the person himself was at fault in the two properties – i.e. the lawful and the unlawful – becoming mixed, then as an obligatory precaution, he must give him more than what he deems probable is his property.

Ruling 1833. If a person pays khums on lawful property that has become mixed with unlawful property and later realises that the quantity of unlawful property was more than the khums, he must give the extra quantity that he knows was more than khums as sadaqah on behalf of its owner.

Ruling 1834. If a person pays khums on lawful property that has become mixed with unlawful property, or, if he gives some property as sadaqah on behalf of the owner who is unknown to him and later the owner is found, in the event that the owner does not agree [to the action taken], then based on obligatory precaution, the person must reimburse him his share.

Ruling 1835. If lawful property is mixed with unlawful property and the quantity of the unlawful property is known, and if a person knows that the owner can only be one of a group of people but he does not know which one, then in such a case, he must inform all of them. Thereafter, in the event that one of them says it belongs to him and the others say it is not theirs or they confirm that it belongs to him, the person must give it to him. However, if two or more persons say it belongs to them, in the event that the dispute is not resolved by way of settlement and suchlike, they must refer to a fully qualified jurist to settle the dispute. And if all of them claim they did not know or are not ready to settle, then what is apparent (zāhir)13 is that ownership of the property must be determined by drawing lots (qur’ah); and as an obligatory precaution, the lots must be drawn by a fully qualified jurist or his representative (wakīl).

5. GEMS ACQUIRED BY UNDERWATER DIVING

Ruling 1836. If by means of underwater diving a person acquires pearls, corals, or other gems, whether it is organic or mineral, in the event that their value reaches eighteen nukhuds14 of gold, he must pay khums on them – irrespective of whether they were brought up in a single dive or in multiple dives – provided there is not a long interval between them; and if there is – for example, he dives in two different seasons – then, in the event that [the gems found in] each dive do not reach the value of eighteen nukhuds of gold, it is not obligatory to pay khums on them. Similarly, if the share of each diver taking part in the dive does not reach the value of eighteen nukhuds of gold, it is not obligatory to pay khums on it.

Ruling 1837. If a person acquires gems from the sea by means other than diving, then based on obligatory precaution, it is obligatory on him to pay khums on them. However, if he acquires them from the surface of the sea or from the sea shore, then he must pay khums on them only if what he has acquired on its own, or in combination with other profits made by him, exceeds his living expenses for one year.

Ruling 1838. Khums on fish and other animals that a person catches without diving into the sea is only obligatory if on its own, or in combination with other profits made by him, exceeds his living expenses for one year.

Ruling 1839. If a person dives into the sea without the intention of bringing anything out of it, and if he incidentally finds a gem and intends to keep it, he must pay khums on it. In fact, the obligatory precaution is that he must pay khums on it in any situation.

Ruling 1840. If a person dives into the sea and brings out a creature and finds a gem in its stomach, in the event that the creature is like an oyster that by its nature can contain a gem, he must pay khums on it provided that its value reaches the nisāb. And if the creature has incidentally swallowed the gem, then the obligatory precaution is that one must pay khums on it even if its value does not reach the nisāb.

Ruling 1841. If a person dives into big rivers like the Tigris and Euphrates and brings out a gem, he must pay khums on it.

Ruling 1842. If a person dives into water and brings out some ambergris with a value that is equal to eighteen nukhuds of gold or more, he must pay khums on it. In fact, the same rule applies even if it is obtained from the surface of the sea or from the sea shore.

Ruling 1843. If a person whose profession is diving or extracting minerals pays khums on what he finds and his income exceeds his living expenses for the year, it is not necessary for him to pay khums on them again.

Ruling 1844. If a child extracts a mineral, or finds a treasure trove, or brings out gems from the sea by diving, his guardian (walī) must pay khums on them. And in the event that he does not, the child must pay the khums after he becomes bāligh. Similarly, if the child has lawful property that is mixed with unlawful property, the guardian must act according to the rules mentioned in the section on mixed property.

6. SPOILS OF WAR

Ruling 1845. If Muslims fight a war against disbelievers (kuffār) in compliance with the command of the Imam (‘A) and they acquire things from the war, those things are called ghanā’im (spoils of war). The things that are exclusively for the Imam (‘A) from the spoils of war must be put aside and khums must be paid on the rest. With regard to the liability of khums, there is no difference between movable and immovable things. Land that is not anfāl belongs to the general Muslim public even if the war was not fought with the permission of the Imam (‘A).

Ruling 1846. If Muslims fight in a war against disbelievers without the permission of the Imam (‘A) and acquire spoils of war from them, then everything that they acquire as spoils of the war belongs to the Imam (‘A) and the fighters have no right over them.

Ruling 1847. The rules on spoils of war do not apply to things that are in the hands of disbelievers in the event that the owner is someone whose property is inviolable (muhtaram al-māl), i.e. a Muslim, or a dhimmī disbeliever, or a cosignatory with Muslims to a peace or security treaty (mu’āhid).

Ruling 1848. Stealing etc. from a harbī disbeliever15 in the event that it is considered treachery and a breach of security is unlawful. And based on obligatory precaution, whatever is taken from them in this way must be returned.

Ruling 1849. The well-known (mashhūr) juristic opinion is that a believer can appropriate the property of a nāsibī16 and pay khums on it. However, this rule is problematic [i.e. based on obligatory precaution, one must avoid doing this].17

7. LAND THAT A DHIMMĪ PURCHASES FROM A MUSLIM

Ruling 1850. If a dhimmī disbeliever purchases land from a Muslim, then based on the well-known (mashhūr) juristic opinion, he must pay khums on it from the land itself or from his other property. However,

15 This refers to a disbeliever who is not a dhimmī and has not entered into any peace or security treaty with Muslims.

16 In Ruling 103, nawāsib (pl. of nāsibī) are defined as ‘those who show enmity towards the Imams (‘A)’.

17 See Minhāj al-Sālihīn, vol. 1, p. 358, Ruling 1190; Tawdīh al-Masā’il-i Jāmi’, vol. 1, p. 700, Ruling 2436. the obligation to pay khums – as it is commonly understood – in this case is problematic [i.e. the obligation to pay khums is based on obligatory precaution, and observing precaution here must not be abandoned].18

DISTRIBUTION OF KHUMS

Ruling 1851. Khums must be divided into two parts: one part is the portion for sayyids19 (sahm al-sādāt), which must be given to a sayyid who is poor, or who is an orphan, or who is stranded on a journey. The second part is the portion for the Imam (‘A) (sahm al-imām), which at the present time [i.e. during the time of the Imam’s (‘A) occultation] must either be given to a fully qualified jurist or spent for purposes that he permits. And the obligatory precaution is that the fully qualified jurist must be the most learned (a’lam) marja’20 and be well aware of public affairs.

Ruling 1852. An orphan sayyid to whom khums is given must be poor. However, a sayyid who is stranded on a journey can be given khums even if he is not a poor person in his home town (watan).

Ruling 1853. If the journey of a sayyid who is stranded was for a sinful purpose, then based on obligatory precaution, he must not be given khums.

Ruling 1854. A sayyid who is not a just person (‘ādil) can be given khums. However, khums must not be given to a sayyid who is not a Twelver Shia.

Ruling 1855. A sayyid who uses khums for sinful purposes cannot be given khums. In fact, the obligatory precaution is that khums must not be given to him if it assists him to commit sins even if he does not spend it directly for sinful purposes. Similarly, the obligatory precaution is that a sayyid who consumes alcohol, or does not perform prayers, or publicly commits sins, must not be given khums.

Ruling 1856. If a person claims that he is a sayyid, khums cannot be given to him unless two just persons confirm it, or one attains certainty or confidence (itmi’nān) by some other way that he is a sayyid.

Ruling 1857. Khums can be given to a person who is known to be a sayyid in his home town, provided that one is not certain or confident that he is not a sayyid.

Ruling 1858. If a person’s wife is a sayyidah,21 then based on obligatory precaution, he must not give his khums to her to spend it on her living expenses. However, if it is obligatory on her to meet the living expenses of others but she cannot do so, it is permitted ( jā’iz) for him to give his khums to her to spend it on them. The same applies with regard to giving khums to her to spend on her maintenance (nafaqah) that is not obligatory on him to provide [i.e. he must not give his khums to her to spend it on what is obligatory on him to provide].

Ruling 1859. If it is obligatory on a person to meet the living expenses of a sayyid or of a sayyidah who is not his wife, then based on obligatory precaution, he cannot provide for her food, clothing, and other obligatory maintenance from khums. However, there is no problem if he gives some khums to her to spend on things that are not obligatory on him to provide.

Ruling 1860. Khums can be given to a poor sayyid whose living expenses are obligatory on another person who cannot, or does not, meet the living expenses of the sayyid.

Ruling 1861. The obligatory precaution is that one must not give a sayyid an amount of khums that is more than his living expenses for one year.

Ruling 1862. If there is no one entitled to receive khums in a person’s town, he can take it to another town. In fact, he can take it to another town even if there is someone entitled to receive it in his town provided that this act is not considered to be nonchalance in paying khums. In either case, if the khums perishes, he is responsible (dāmin) for it [and he must reimburse it] even if he was not negligent in looking after it. Furthermore, he cannot deduct the costs for taking it [to the other town] from the khums.

Ruling 1863. If a person keeps hold of his own khums by way of agency (wikālah) of a fully qualified jurist or his representative, he [is still deemed to have paid his khums and] is absolved of his responsibility. Furthermore, if he transfers it to another town in compliance with the direction of a fully qualified jurist or his representative, and in the process it perishes without him being negligent, he is not responsible for it.

Ruling 1864. It is not permitted for one to calculate an item as having a higher price than it actually does and then give it in lieu of khums. And as stated in Ruling 1805, it is problematic [i.e. based on obligatory precaution, he must not] give something else in lieu of khums – apart from money – except with the permission of a fully qualified jurist or his agent.

Ruling 1865. If a person who is owed money by someone entitled to receive khums wants to calculate the amount he is owed in lieu of the khums that is payable by him, he must, based on obligatory precaution, either first obtain permission from a fully qualified jurist or give the khums to the person entitled to receive it who thereafter returns it to him in lieu of the money he owes him. Alternatively, the person who is owed the money can become an agent for the person entitled to receive khums and keep hold of it on his behalf as payment in lieu of what he is owed.

Ruling 1866. A person who must pay khums ca n not ma ke it a condition on someone entitled to receive it that he must return the amount to him.

Dhimmīs are People of the Book (ahl al-kitāb) – i.e. Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians – who have entered into a dhimmah treaty, i.e. an agreement that gives them rights as protected subjects in an Islamic state.

2 This is a divorce that takes place at the insistence of a wife and in which she pays an agreed sum to her husband.

3 This is a matter of inheritance that is common among Sunni Muslims but invalid from a Shia perspective. [Author]

4 Radd al-mazālim refers to giving back property – which has been unrightfully or unknowingly taken – to its rightful owner, or if that is not possible, to the poor as sadaqah on behalf of the rightful owner.

5 This is known as a ‘specified’ (shakhsī) purchase. See the second footnote pertaining to Ruling 807.

6 This is referring to a type of purchase that is known as a ‘non-specified undertaking’. See the first footnote pertaining to Ruling 807.

7 Ziyārah is a visitation to the place of burial of a holy personality or to a holy place.

8 As mentioned in Ruling 6, the term ‘problematic’ (mahall al-ishkāl) amounts to saying the ruling is based on obligatory precaution.

9 Here, the fully qualified jurist takes the khums from the person who owes it and then returns it to him as a loan. In this way, the person who owes khums can have disposal over his property.

10 This is known as a ‘specified’ (shakhsī) purchase. See the second footnote pertaining to Ruling 807.

11 Based on the definitions in Ruling 1912, one common mithqāl is equal to approximately 4.68 grams; therefore, fifteen common mithqāls is equal to approximately 70.2 grams.

12 Dhimmīs are People of the Book (ahl al-kitāb) – i.e. Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians – who have entered into a dhimmah treaty, i.e. an agreement that gives them rights as protected subjects in an Islamic state.

13 For practical purposes in jurisprudential rulings, expressing an apparent ruling equates to giving a fatwa.

14 A nukhud is a measure of weight. One nukhud is equivalent to approximately 0.195 grams; therefore, eighteen nukhuds is equal to approximately 3.51 grams.

15 This refers to a disbeliever who is not a dhimmī and has not entered into any peace or security treaty with Muslims.

16 In Ruling 103, nawāsib (pl. of nāsibī) are defined as ‘those who show enmity towards the Imams (‘A)’.

17 See Minhāj al-Sālihīn, vol. 1, p. 358, Ruling 1190; Tawdīh al-Masā’il-i Jāmi’, vol. 1, p. 700,

18 See Minhāj al-Sālihīn, vol. 1, p. 362.

19 A sayyid is a male descendant of Hashim, the great grandfather of Prophet Muhammad (S).

20 A marja’ is a jurist who has the necessary qualifications to be followed in matters of Islamic jurisprudence ( fiqh). See Ruling 2.

21 A sayyidah is a female descendant of Hashim, the great grandfather of Prophet Muhammad (S).

 

KHUMS Book PROJECT

There is insufficient clear English content for Khums, an important obligation. Khums affects other acts of worship & in case we can help others to fulfill this obligation correctly, It has great potential to provide the resources required for community change.

We need One good document explaining all aspects of Khums.
1 A file can be downloaded from here which contains in ' Word' the foll :-
A starting draft Index (see below) in Word of what this Khums work should look like

a) A booklet on Khums By Moulana Sayyid Muhammad Rizvi.
b) Extracts from Jurisprudence made easy/Contemporary rulings/Code of Practice for Muslims in the west/Current legal issues –
by  Ayt Sestani (h)
c) Extracts from Islamic laws book of Ayt Seestani (h)
d) Notes on Fiqh lectures in Australia on Khums by Moulana Sadiq Hassan

The intention is to sort this information & collect more inputs to make one verified; nicely sorted / indexed searchable document with examples etc which can be used by the English speaking community to understand all aspects of this important wajib obligation.
An Excel file can also be downloaded here khums_draftdocs.xls containing
-Terminology
- 3 Charts on Assets/loans treatment
- Foreign exchange example
- Shares trading eg
- Trading co sample sheet
- Contracting co. sample sheet
- Manufacturing co. sample sheet
- Salary eg
- Invt /loan sheet
- Open questions

We need help on
- Identification of interested International Momin Accountants/other institutions/ individuals
- Develop the content thru collaboration
- Verification by Fiqh experts who will view content & correct

It will be useful if you can consider speaking with Ulamaa or others to guide this process & seek involvement of suitable persons for this collaborative work after reviewing the proposed index given below

Please write to islamicminds@gmail.com if you can do anything on this matter, for rewards from HIM

Khums – The Obligatory Islamic Act
Draft Index of proposed Contents

1 - Introduction

1.1 Definition
1.2 Things on which Khums is obligatory.
1.3 2 important things – On mixed money and On Surplus.

2 - Why Khums?

2.1 Quran
2.2 Hadith
2.3 Rationally needed - Islamic Economic system that benefits self & society.
2.4 Importance & effect on other acts of worship.
2.5 Fear of poverty / future–Satans tool
2.6 Fulfillment of the dues to Ahlulbayt

3 - Definitions

3.1 Mixed money
3.2 Surplus = Business net profit + job earnings + other gains – exempted gains – permissible personal expenditure – permissible personal savings in kind.

4 - Relevant Concepts

4.1 Taqleed –Marajae & Representatives. Some differences
4.2 Intention
4.3 Zakat & Khums common ground/distinction
4.4 Khums obligation & Charity distinction.
4.5 Year definition /concept -lunar /solar, Date fixation
4.6 Khums not on entire assets
4.7 Usage of item, Unused /Seasonal use material
4.8 Access to own wealth (Ikhtiyar)
4.9 Sadat - Non Sadat defn & responsibility/method to identify
4.10 Social Status/Needs
4.11 A brief overview - Investment v/s loan v/s reserves v/s expenditure v/s expense.
4.12 Mukhammas – Khums free

5 - Khums payment schedule

5.1 Payment prior to due date
5.2 Payment in advance- for same /more than 1year.Estimates & Adjustments.
5.3 Payment after due date & in installments.
5.4 Windfalls - Unexpected Incomes
5.5 In the event of Death

6 - The formula, Surplus = Business net profit + job earnings + other gains – exempted gains – permissible personal expenditure – permissible personal savings in kind.

6.1 Brief note on surplus. Surplus and not savings.
6.2 Brief note on Business - net profit genuine statement
6.3 Brief note on Job - earnings genuine statement
6.4 Brief note on Other gains
6.5 Brief note on Exempted gains
6.6 Brief note on Permissible personal expenditure – What is meant individually by permissible, personal and expenditure?
6.7 Brief note on Permissible personal savings.
6.8 Brief note on ‘In Kind’ – Not in cash.
6.9 Hajj / dowry – Not exemptions but examples of permissible savings in kind.

7 - Business - net profit genuine statement

7.1 What is meant by net profit?
7.2 What is meant by genuine?
7.3 Closing balance – Opening balances method.
7.4 Treatment for Investment payments, receipts, Profit/loss on sale
7.5 Business payments in terms of Haram / Israf / Khums / Investment
7.6 Income Accrued vs received
7.7 Expenses - Accrued vs paid – consistency
7.8 Deductible - expenditure / expenses?
7.9 Employee Provident fund – Employee/Employer contribution /Receipt
7.10 Use of capital for expenses / loss
7.11 Advances
7.12 Invt valuations on khums date & Net worth changes considerations
7.13 Borrowings & Repayments made . Loans given & repayment recd
7.14 Inventory of balance material available & unused /once used.
7.15 Receipt in hand/ at bank & in last mth/day
7.16 Set off of losses
7.17 Increase in Net worth/profit – Mixed vs separable
7.18 Business Income spreadsheet.
7.19 Examples.

8 - Job - earnings genuine statement

8.1 Salary statement
8.2 Employee Provident fund – Employee/Employer contribution /Receipt
8.3 Salary Earner spreadsheet.
8.4 Investments made, P&L – additions/deductions
8.5 Use of capital for expenses / loss
8.6 Increase in Net worth/profit – Mixed vs separable
8.7 Receipt in hand/ at bank & in last mth/day
8.8 Salary Income & Investments spreadsheet.
8.9 Examples.

9 - Permissible/Non-permissible personal expenditure and personal savings in kind – statement

9.1 Personal V/S Business.
9.2 Useful and not merely used expenditure
9.3 Deductible - expenditure / expenses?
9.4 Accrued vs paid
9.5 Personal payments in terms of Haram/ Israf / Khums
9.6 Personal insurance premium payments –Refundable/Non refundable.
9.7 Set off of losses – Permissible/Non-permissible.
9.8 Increase in Networth/profit – Mixed vs separable
9.9 Borrowings & Repayments made . Loans given & repayment recd
9.10 Advance payments made against delivery of products or services in the next year.
9.11 Personal cash savings
9.12 Personal savings certificate/shares
9.13 Personal savings like books, house purchase, dowry, Hajj, etc.
9.14 Statement format in Spreadsheet
9.15 Examples

10 - Surplus – Final Statement

10.1 Closing balance – Opening balances method.
10.2 Applying the Formula.
10.3 Borrowings & Repayments made . Loans given & repayment recd
10.4 Increase in Networth of personal assets.
10.5 Multiple currencies to common consistent currency
10.6 Surplus spreadsheet.
10.7 Examples

11 - First Time Khums payment

11.1 Fixing date
11.2 Estimating Past years Khums
11.3 Seeking pardon from representative on legitimate grounds – Waive off or installment payment.

12 - To Whom is it to be paid

12.1 Payment to Representative /Organizations – Authorization details
12.2 No responsibility beyond pyt to authority for misuse etc
12.3 Use of Sehme Imam/ Sadat based on own judgment
12.4 Obtaining permissions for payment to specific projects/relatives

13 - Frequently Asked Questions

13.1 Objections on Khums use by Ulamaa
13.2 Answer to khums only on war booty & only once in Quran
13.3 Answers to Charity vs khums
13.4 Answers to wastage / misuse
13.5 Answers to obligation on Sadat too
13.6 Answers to No eligible person to collect

14 - Complicated scenarios

14.1 Spreadsheet
14.2 Examples

15 -  Lists

15.1 Spreadsheets
15.2 Quranic Verses
15.3 Traditions
15.4 Books