TRAVEL FIQH

Case study of Qasr Salat

 

This document  is a collection of relevant Masail & Q & A from the 4 books Islamic laws , Jurisprudence made easy , Contemporary legal rulings & Current Legal Issues. In order to make one complete document which
can guide travelers of all Travel related Issues.

Definitions
Qasr: A shortened form of prayer: A concession for a musafir (Traveler) to perform
a two raka'a prayer instead of the full four raka'a one (see tamam).

hadd al-tarakhkhus: point away from the boundary of a city whose inhabitants cannot be seen. Some jurists consider it to be a point from where the city's call to prayers (adhan) cannot be heard. However, Ayatollah Seestani objects to this latter definition.(MSp.297, Q918) 
Islamic Laws - Prayers of a traveler (Musafir)
A traveler should reduce the Rak'ats in Zuhr, Asr and Isha prayers, that is, he should perform two Rak'ats instead of four, subject to the following eight conditions:

The first condition..
is that his journey is not less than 8 farsakh . A farsakh in shariah is a little less than 51/2 kilometers. (When converted into miles, 8 farsakh is equal to 28 miles approximately).

1281. If the total of outward journey and return journey is 8 farsakh, even if the single journey either way does not equal 4 farsakh, he should shorten his prayers. Therefore, if his outward journey is 3 farsakh, and his return is 5 farsakh, or vice versa, he should offer shortened prayers, that is, of two Rak'ats

1282. If the total of outward and return journey is just 8 farsakh, the traveler should shorten his prayers, even if he does not return on the same day or night. However, as a precaution, he should also offer complete prayers.

1283. If a brief journey is less than 8 farsakh or if a person does not know whether or not his journey is 8 farsakh, he should not shorten his prayers. If he doubts whether or not his journey is 8 farsakh, it is not necessary for him to investigate, he should offer complete prayers.

1284. If an 'Adil or a reliable person tells a traveler that the distance covered in his journey equals 8 farsakh, he should shorten his prayers, if he feels satisfied.

1285. If a person believed that his journey equaled 8 farsakh, and he shortened his prayers, and learnt later that it was not 8 farsakh, he should offer four Rak'ats of prayers, and if the time for the prayers has lapsed, he should perform its qadha.

1286. If a person is sure that his journey is not of 8 farsakh, or if he doubts whether or not it is of 8 farsakh , if he realizes on his way that the distance of his journey had been 8 farsakh, he should offer shortened prayers, even if very little remains of his journey. If he has offered complete prayers, he should offer it again in the shortened form, but if the times of namaz has lapsed, there is no qadha for it.

1287. If a person frequents between two places which are less than 4 farsakh apart, he should offer complete prayers, even if the total distance covered by him may add up to 8 farsakh.

1288. If two roads lead to a place, one of them less than 8 farsakh away, and the other 8 farsakh or more, the traveler will offer shortened prayers if he travels by the road which is 8 farsakh away, and complete prayers if he travels by the road which is less than 8 farsakh away.

1289. The beginning of 8 farsakh should be calculated from a point beyond which he will be deemed a traveler, and this point is represented by the last boundary of a city. In certain very big cities, it would be probably reckoned from the end of locality.

The second condition..
is that the traveler should intend at the time of the commencement of the journey, to cover a distance of 8 farsakh. If he travels up to a point which is less than 8 farsakh away, and after reaching there decides to go further, and the two distances, when combined total 8 farsakh, he should offer full prayers.
This is so, because he did not intend traveling 8 farsakh when he commenced his journey. But if he decides to travel further 8 farsakh from there, or to go to a distance of 4 farsakh and then to cover another 4 farsakh to return home, or to go to a place where he intends staying for 10 days, he should shorten his prayers.

1290. A person who does not know how many farsakh his journey would be, like, if he travels in search of something not knowing how far he will have to go, should offer full prayers. But, if the return journey to his home, or up to a place where he intends staying for 10 days, is 8 farsakh or more, he should offer shortened prayers. Moreover, if he makes a niyyat, during the journey, that he will travel 4 farsakh and again return covering 4 farsakh, he should shorten his prayers.

1291. A traveler should offer shortened prayers only when he is firmly determined to travel 8 farsakh. Hence, if a person goes outside the city thinking that he would cover 8 farsakh if he finds a companion, he will offer shortened prayers only if he is sure that he will find a companion. And if he is not sure to find one, he should pray full.

1292. A person who intends to travel 8 farsakh, will pray shortened prayers even if he covers little distance every day. But he will do this when he has reached the point beyond which traveling begins, as explained in rule no.

1327. However, if his journey is at such a slow pace, that it cannot be considered a journey, then, as per obligatory precaution, he should pray both, full and shortened prayers.

1293. If a person who is under the control of another person while on a journey, like, a servant traveling with his master, knows that his journey is 8 farsakh, he should offer shortened prayers. But if he does not know, he should offer full prayers, and it is not necessary for him to inquire.

1294. If a person, who is under the control of another person while on a journey, knows or thinks that he will get separated from that person before reaching 4 farsakh, he should offer full prayers.

1295. If a person who is under the control of another person while on a journey, feels that he would separate from that person before reaching 4 farsakh, he should offer full prayers. But if he feels sure that he would not separate, at the same time having a faint presentiment that an impediment might occur in the journey, he should offer shortened prayers.

The third condition..

is that the traveler should not change his mind while on his way. If he changes his mind, or is undecided before covering 4 farsakh, he should offer full prayers.

1296. If after covering a distance which would add up to make 8 farsakh on return, the traveler abandons the journey, and if he decides to remain at that place, or to return after 10 days, or is undecided about returning or staying there, he should offer full prayers.

1297. If a person abandons the journey after reaching a distance which would add up to make 8 farsakh on return, and decides to return, he should offer shortened prayers even if he wants to stay there for less than 10 days.

1298. If a person commences his journey to go to a place which is at a distance of 8 farsakh, and after covering a part of the journey, decides to go elsewhere, and the distance between the place from where he started his journey, up to the new place, is 8 farsakh, he should shorten his prayers.

1299. If a person, before reaching 8 farsakh, becomes undecided about proceeding further, and if he stops his journey, and later decides to proceed to complete the intended journey, he should offer shortened prayers till the end of his journey.

1300. If a person, before covering 8 farsakh, becomes undecided about proceeding further, and in the same state of indecision continues traveling, till he decides to go further for 8 farsakh, or for a distance which would add up to make 8 farsakh on return, he should pray shortened prayers till the end, regardless of whether he wants to return the same day or night, or stay there for less than 10 days.

1301. If before covering a distance of 8 farsakh a, traveler becomes undecided whether he should complete the journey or not, and decides later to do so, if his remaining journey is less than 8 farsakh, he should offer full prayers. But if the distance covered before indecision and the remaining distance, both add up to 8 farsakh, he will offer shortened prayers.

The fourth condition..

is that the traveler does not intend to pass through his home town and stay there, or to stay at some place for 10 days or more, before he reaches a distance of 8 farsakh. Hence a person, who intends to pass through his home town and stay there, or to stay at a place for 10 days, before he reaches of 8 farsakh, he should offer full prayers.

1302. A person, who does not know whether or not he will pass through his home town and stay there, before reaching 8 farsakh, or through a place where he will stay for 10 days, should offer full prayers.

1303. A person who wishes to pass through his home town and stay there, before he reaches 8 farsakh, or to stay at a place for 10 days, or if he is undecided about it, should offer complete prayers even if he later abandons the idea of passing through his home town, or staying at a place for 10 days. However, if the remaining journey is of 8 farsakh or adds upto 8 farsakh on return, he should shorten his prayers.

The fifth condition..

is that the purpose of traveling should not be haraam. Therefore, if a person travels to do something unlawful, like, to commit theft, he should offer full prayers. The same rule applies when traveling itself is haraam, like, when traveling involves a harm which is haraam in Shariah, or when a wife travels without the permission of her husband for a journey which is not obligatory upon her. But if it is an obligatory journey, like that of Wajib Hajj, then shortened prayers should be offered.

1304. A journey which is not obligatory, and is a cause of displeasure of one's parents, is haraam, and while going on such a journey, one should offer full prayers and should also fast.

1305. A person whose journey is not haraam, nor is it for a purpose which is haraam, should shorten his prayers even if he may, during the journey, commit some sin like, indulging in Gheebat or taking alcohol.

1306. If a person undertakes a journey to avoid some obligatory act, regardless of whether he has some other purpose attached to it, he should offer full prayers. Hence, if a person owes some money, and he undertakes a journey to avoid the demand of his creditor, he should offer full prayers. However, if his journey has different purpose, he should shorten his prayers, even if he leaves out some obligatory acts during that journey.

1307. If a person travels on a vehicle or on an animal which is usurped, and travels to escape from the rightful owner, or if he travels on a usurped land, he will offer full prayers.

1308. If a person is traveling with an oppressor, of his own volition, and by so doing is helpful to the oppressor in his inequity, he should offer full prayers. But if he is helpless, or, if he is traveling with the oppressor to save the oppressed person, he should shorten his prayers.

1309. If a person travels for recreation and outing, his journey is not haraam, and he should shorten his prayers.

1310. If a person goes out for hunting, with the object of sport and pleasure, his prayers during the outward journey will be full, and on return it will be qasr if it does not involve hunting. But if a person goes out for hunting, to earn his livelihood, he should offer shortened prayers. Similarly, if he goes for business and increase in his wealth, he will pray qasr, although in this case, the precaution is that he should offer qasr as well as full prayers.

1311. If a person has journeyed to commit a sin, he should, on his return, shorten his prayers, if the return journey alone covers 8 farsakh. And the recommended precaution is that if he has not done Tawba, he should offer qasr as well as full prayers.

1312. If a person traveling with the purpose of committing a sin, abandons the idea during his journey, he will pray qasr even if the remaining distance from there, or the total of going and returning from there is not 8 farsakh.

1313. If a person who originally set forth on a journey with no intention of sin, decides during his journey to make it a journey of sin, he will offer full prayers. However, the prayers which he might have prayed in qasr form up till then, will be in order.

The sixth condition..

is that the traveler should not be a nomad, who roam about in the deserts, and temporarily stay at places where they find food for themselves, and fodder and water for their animals, and again proceed to some other place after a few days' halt. During these journeys the nomads should offer full prayers.

1314. If a nomad travels to find out residence for himself, and pasture for his animals, and carries his bag and baggage with him, he should offer full prayers, otherwise if his journey is 8 farsakh he should shorten his prayers.

1315. If a nomad travels for Ziyarat, Hajj (pilgrimage), trade or any other similar purpose, he should shorten his prayers.

The seventh condition..

is that traveling should not be his profession, that is, one who has no other work but traveling; or that traveling is the means of his subsistence, like the camel riders, drivers, herdsmen and sailors. Such people will pray full, even if they travel for their personal work, like transporting their own household effects, or transporting their families. Those who live at one place and work at another, commuting every day, or every other day, like students or businessmen etc., fall in this category.

1316. If a person whose profession is traveling, travels for another purpose like, for Hajj, he should shorten his prayers except when he is a known frequent traveler. If, for example, the driver of automobile hires out his vehicle for pilgrimage, and incidentally performs pilgrimage himself as well, he should offer full prayers.

1317. If a person whose profession is that of a courier, that is, a person who travels to transport the pilgrims to Makkah, is traveling, he should offer full prayers, and if his profession is not traveling and he travels only during Hajj days for the purpose of portage, the obligatory precaution is that he should offer qasr as well as full prayers. However, if the period of his journey is short, like two or three weeks, he may offer shortened prayers.

1318. If a person whose profession is that of a courier who takes pilgrims to Makkah from distant places, spends a considerable part of the days in a year traveling, he should offer full prayers.

1319. A person whose profession for a part of the year is traveling, like a driver who hires out his automobile during winter or summer, should offer full prayers during those journeys, and the recommended precaution is that he should offer qasr prayers, as well as full prayers.

1320. If a driver or a hawker, who goes round within an area of 2 or 3 farsakh in the city, happens to travel on a journey consisting of 8 farsakh, he should shorten his prayers.

1321. If a person whose profession is traveling, stays in his home town for 10 days or more, with or without the original intention, he should offer full prayers during the first journey that he undertakes after ten days. The same rule will apply, when he travels after ten days from a place which is not his home town.

1322. If a herdsman whose profession is traveling, stays at his home town or any other place for 10 days with or without any intention, he should, as a recommended precaution, perform both qasr and full prayers when he undertakes his first journey after ten days.

1323. If herdsmen or camel drivers who have traveling as their profession, find it difficult and exhausting to conduct a particular additional journey, they should pray qasr in it.

1324. A person who tours different cities, and has not adopted a homeland for himself, should offer full prayers.

1325. If a person whose profession is not traveling, has to travel quite often to transport a commodity he owns, he will pray qasr, unless the traveling is so frequent that he becomes known as a constant traveler.

1326. If a person is not a professional traveler, and he has abandoned his homeland and wants to adopt another homeland, he should shorten his prayers while he is traveling.

The eighth condition..

is that the traveler reaches the limit of tarakhkhus, that is, at a point beyond which traveling begins. But if a person is not in his hometown, the rule of tarakhkhus will not apply to him. Just as he travels from his place of residence, his prayers will be qasr.

1327. The limit of tarakhkhus is a place where people of the city do not see the traveler, and its sign is, when he does not see them.

1328. A traveler who is returning to his hometown will continue praying qasr, till he enters the hometown. Similarly, a person who intends to stay for ten days at a place, will offer qasr prayers, till he reaches that place.

1329. If a city is situated at such a height, that the residents can be seen from a distance, or, if it is so low that if a person covers a little distance, he would not see them, a traveler from that city should offer qasr prayers applying that distance, which would make him unable to see them were he traveling on a flat land. And if the elevation or depression of the path varies abnormally, the traveler should take an average mean into consideration.

1330. If a person starts his journey from a place which is uninhabited, he should shorten his prayers when he reaches a place from which the residents, if they had been there, would not have been seen.

1331. If a person traveling in a ship or on a train, starts praying full prayers before reaching the point of tarakhkhus, and if he reaches that point before having gone into the Ruku of the third Rak'at, he should pray qasr.

1332. In the situation mentioned above, if he reaches the point of tarakhkhus after the Ruku of the third Rak'at, he can abandon that prayer, and pray qasr.

1333. If a person was sure that he had reached the point of tarakhkhus, and accordingly started praying qasr, and then he realized that at the time of prayers, he had not reached that point, he should pray again. At that time when he realized this, if he has still not reached the point of tarakhkhus, he will pray full, and if he has already crossed the point, he will pray qasr. And if the time of prayer has lapsed, he will give qadha.

1334. If a person is gifted with an unusually sharp eyesight, enabling him to see from a distance where others may not be able to see, he will pray qasr from a point from where a person with normal vision would not see the residents.

1335. If a person doubts whether or not he has reached the point of tarakhkhus he should offer full prayers.

1336. A traveler who is passing through his hometown, if he makes a stopover there, he will pray full, otherwise, as an obligatory precaution, he will combine both, full as well as qasr prayers.

1337. When a traveler reaches his hometown during his journey, and makes a stopover there, he should offer full prayers as long as he stays there. But, if he wishes to go from there to a distance of 8 farsakh, or to go upto 4 farsakh and then return for the same distance, he should offer qasr prayers when he reaches the limit of tarakhkhus.

1338. A place which a person adopts for his permanent living is his home, irrespective of whether he was born there, or whether it was the home of his parents, or whether he himself selected it as his residence.

1339. If a person intends to stay for some time at a place which is not his original home town, and to later migrate to another place, then such a place will not be considered as his home (Watan).

1340. A place which a person adopts for his residence is his hometown (watan) even if he has not made a specific intention to live there for ever. It is his watan, if the people there do not consider him a traveler, in spite of his sojourn at other place where he may be putting up for ten or less days.

1341. If a person lives at two places, for example, he lives in one city for six months, and in another for another six months, both of them are his home (watan). And, if he adopts more than two places for his living, all of them are reckoned to be his home (watan).

1342. Some Fuqaha have said that if a person owns a house at a place, and lives there continuously for six months, with the intention of living there, he should, as long as that house is owned by him, offer full prayers as and when he travels to that place. But this verdict is not evidenced.

1343. If a person reaches a place which was previously his home, but has since abandoned it, he should not offer full prayers there, even if he may not have adopted a new home (watan).

1344. If a traveler intends to stay at a place continuously for ten days, or knows that he will be obliged to stay at a place for ten days, he should offer full prayers at that place.

1345. If a traveler intends to stay at a place for ten days, it is not necessary that his intention should be to stay there during the first night or the eleventh night. And as soon as he determines that he will stay there from sunrise on the first day up to sunset of the tenth day, he should offer full prayers. Same will apply if, for example, he intends staying there from noon of the first day up to noon of the eleventh day.

1346. A person who intends to stay at a place for ten days, should offer full prayers if he wants to stay for ten days at that place only. If he intends to spend, for example, ten days between Najaf and Kufa, or between Tehran and Shamiran, he should offer qasr prayers.

1347. If a traveler who wants to stay at a place for ten days, has determined at the very outset, that during the period of ten days, he will travel to surrounding places up to the limit of tarakhkhus or more, and if the period of his going and returning is so brief, that it cannot be considered as infringement of his intention of staying there for 10 days, he should offer full prayers.
But if it is considered as an infringement, then he should pray qasr. For example, if he is away from that place for a day and a night, then that prolonged period will be breaking the intention, and he will pray qasr. But if he was away for, say, half a day, returning by the evening, it will not be considered as breaking the intention. Of course, if he travels frequently from that place, giving an impression that he is visiting two or more places, then he will pray qasr.

1348. A traveler, who is not determined to stay at a place for ten days, like, if his intention is that he will stay there for ten days if his friend arrives, or if he finds a good house to stay in, he should offer qasr prayers.

1349. If a traveler has decided to stay at a place for ten days, but at the same time, considers it probable that he may have to leave earlier because of some hindrance, and if that suspicion is justifiable, he should offer shortened prayers.

1350. If a traveler knows, for example, that ten days or more remain before the month ends, and decides to stay at a place till the end of the month he should offer full prayers. But if he does not know how many days remain before the end of the month, and simply decides to stay till the end of the month, he should pray qasr, even if it later turns out to be ten or more days.

1351. If a traveler decides to stay at a place for ten days and abandons the idea before offering one namaz consisting of four Rak'ats, or becomes undecided, he should pray qasr. But, if he abandons the idea of staying there after having offered one namaz consisting of four Rak'ats, or wavers in his intention, he should offer full prayers as long as he is at that place.

1352. If a person who has determined to stay at a place for ten days, keeps a fast and abandons the idea of staying there after Zuhr, if he has offered one namaz consisting of four Rak'ats, his fast on that day, and for as long as he is there, would be valid, and he should offer full prayers. And if he has not offered a namaz consisting of four Rak'ats, the fast kept by him on that day should be, as a precaution, continued and its qadha be given later. He will then pray qasr, and will not fast in the remaining days.

1353. If a traveler who has decided to stay at a place for ten days, abandons the idea, but doubts before changing his intention to stay, whether or not he has offered one namaz consisting of four Rak'ats, he should offer qasr prayers.

1354. If a traveler starts prayers with the intention of qasr, and decides during the prayers that he would stay there for ten days or more, he should offer full prayers consisting of four Rak'ats.

1355. If a traveler who has decided to stay at a place for ten days, changes his mind during his first namaz consisting of four Rak'ats, he should finish his prayers with two Rak'ats if he has not started the third. And in the later days, he should continue with qasr. Similarly, if he has started the third Rak'at, but has not gone into Ruku, he should sit down, and complete the namaz in its shortened form. But if, he has gone into Ruku, he can forsake that namaz, and pray again as qasr. And for as long as he is there, he should pray qasr.

1356. If a traveler who has decided to stay at a place for ten days, stays there for more than ten days, he should offer full prayers as long as he does not start traveling, and it is not necessary that he should make a fresh intention for staying for further ten days.

1357. A traveler who decides to stay at a place for ten days, should keep the obligatory fast; he may also keep Mustahab fast, and offer Nafila (Mustahab everyday prayers) of Zuhr, Asr and Isha prayers.

1358. If a traveler, who has decided to stay at a place for ten days, if after offering a namaz of four Rak'ats (not qadha), or after staying for ten days even without having offered one set of full prayers, wishes to travel less than 4 farsakh away and to return, and to stay again at his first place for ten days or less, he should offer full prayers from the time he goes till he returns, and after his return.
But if his return to the place of his stay is only for passing through, on a journey of eight farsakh or more, it will be necessary for him to offer qasr prayers at the time of going, returning, and also at that place.

1359. If a traveler who decides to stay at a place for ten days, after offering namaz (not qadha) of four Rak'ats, decides to go to another place less than 8 farsakh away, and to stay there for ten days, he should offer full prayers while going, and at the place where he intends to stay. But, if the place where he wants to go is 8 farsakh away or more, he should shorten his prayers while going, and if he does not want to stay there for ten days, he should shorten his prayers during the period he stays there also.

1360. If a traveler who has decided to stay at a place for ten days, wishes, after offering namaz (not qadha) of four Rak'ats, to go to a place which is less than 4 farsakh away, and is undecided about returning to his first place, or is totally unmindful about it, or he wishes to return, but is uncertain about staying for ten days, or is totally unmindful of staying there for ten days, or traveling from there, he should from the time of his going till returning, and after his return offer full prayers.

1361. If a person decides to stay at a place for ten days, under the impression that his companions wish to stay there for ten days, and after offering namaz (not qadha) of four Rak'ats, he learns that they have made no such decision, he should offer full prayers as long as he is there, even if he himself gives up the idea of remaining there.

1362. If a traveler stays at a place unexpectedly for thirty days, like, if he remained undecided throughout those thirty days, whether he should stay there or not, he should offer full prayers after thirty days, even it be for a short period.

1363. If a traveler intends to stay at a place for nine days or less, and if after spending nine days or less, he decides to extend his stay for further nine days or less, till thirty days, he should offer full prayers on the thirty first day.

1364. An undecided traveler will offer full prayers after thirty days, if he stays for all thirty days at one place. If he stays for a part of that period at one place, and the rest at another & 127; place, he should offer qasr prayers even after thirty days.

Miscellaneous rules

1365. A traveler can offer full prayers in Masjidul Haram and Masjidul Nabi and Masjid of Kufa, and even in the entire cities of Makkah, Madina and Kufa. He can also offer full prayers in the Haram of Imam Husayn (A.S.), upto the distance of 25 arm lengths from the sacred tomb.

1366. If a person who knows that he is a traveler, and should offer qasr prayers, intentionally offers full prayers at places other than the four mentioned above, his prayers are void. And the same rule applies, if he forgets that a traveler must offer qasr prayers, and prays full. However, if he prays full forgetting that a traveler should offer shortened prayers, and remembers after the time has lapsed, it is not necessary for him to give the qadha.

1367. If a person who knows that he is a traveler, and should offer shortened prayers, offers full prayers by mistake, and realises within the time for that namaz, he should pray again. And if he realizes after the lapse of time, he should give qadha as a precaution.

1368. If a traveler does not know that he should shorten his prayers, and if he offers full prayers, his prayers are in order.

1369. If a traveler knew that he should offer shortened prayers, but did not know its details, like, if he did not know that shortened prayers should be offered when the distance of the journey is of 8 farsakh, and if he offers full prayers, as an obligatory precaution, he should repeat the prayers if he comes to know the rule within the time of namaz, and if he does not do that, he will give its qadha. But if he learns of the rule after the time has lapsed, there is no qadha.

1370. If a traveler knows that he should offer shortened prayers, but offers full prayers under the impression that his journey is less than 8 farsakh, when he learns that his journey has been of 8 farsakh, he should repeat the prayers as qasr. And if he learns after the time for the prayers has lapsed, it is not necessary for him to offer qadha.

1371. If a person forgets that he is a traveler and offers complete prayers, and if he remembers this within the time for prayers, he should pray qasr, and if he realizes this after the time is over, it is not obligatory for him to offer qadha of that prayers.

1372. If a person who should offer complete prayers, offers qasr instead, his prayers are void in all circumstances; and as a precaution, this will apply even when he ignorantly prays qasr, at a place where he stopped for 10 days.

1373. If a person begins a prayer of four Rak'ats, and remembers during prayers that he is a traveler, or realises that his journey is of 8 farsakh, if he has not gone into the Ruku of the third Rak'at, he should complete namaz with two Rak'ats. But if he has gone into the Ruku of the third Rak'at, his prayer is void. If he has at his disposal, time even to offer one Rak'at, he should offer qasr prayers.

1374. If a traveler is not aware of some of the details regarding the prayers during travel, for example, if he does not know that if he goes on an outward journey of 4 farsakh, and a return journey of 4 farsakh, he should offer shortened prayers, and he engages in prayers with the intention of offering four Rak'ats, if he comes to know the rule before Ruku of the third Rak'at, he should complete the prayers with two Rak'ats. But if he learns of this rule during Ruku, his prayers as a precaution are void. And if he has time at his disposal, even to offer one Rak'at of prayers, he should offer qasr prayers.

1375. If a traveler who should offer complete prayers, ignorantly makes a niyyat for qasr and learns about the rule during namaz, he should complete the namaz with four Rak'ats, and the recommended precaution is that after the completion of the prayers, he should offer a prayer of four Rak'ats once again.

1376. If before the time of prayers lapses, a traveler who has not offered prayers reaches his hometown, or a place where he intends to stay for ten days, he should offer full prayers. And if a person who is not on a journey, does not offer prayers within its time, and then proceeds on a journey, he should offer the prayers during his journey in shortened form.

1377. If the Zuhr, Asr, or Isha prayers of a traveler, who should have offered qasr prayers, becomes qadha, he should perform its qadha as qasr, even if he gives qadha at his hometown or while he is not traveling. And if a non-traveler makes one of the above three prayers qadha, he should perform its qadha as full, even if he may be traveling at the time he offers the qadha.

1378. It is Mustahab that a traveler should say thirty times after every qasr prayers: "Subhanallahi walhamdu lillahi wala ilaha illallahu wallahu Akbar". More emphasis is laid on this after Zuhr, Asr and Isha prayers. In fact, it is better that it is repeated sixty times after these three prayers.

OTHER BOOKS
Dialogue on prayer – while Travel

While we were still on the subject of prayer, in this part two of the dialogue, I wanted to test my memory as to the information I had acquired.
So, before my father resumed the talk, I asked him if I could say isha prayer by doing two rukus only.
-    No, didn’t I tell you it is a four-ruku prayer.
*    The reason why I asked is that I saw you once perform it as such.
-    On that occasion, were we on a journey?
*   Yes.
-    It is true.  The reason being that there is a concession for the believers, in that when they are on a journey, they are required to do only two rukus, i.e. qasr prayer of the four-raka’ prayers of dhuhr, asr, and isha prayers, provided that certain requirements are met.  These are:

1.  The distance covered by any trip, from the home of the mukallaf, must be at least forty four kilometers, be it one way or return.
*   What is the point of calculating the distance?
-   If you satisfy what is generally accepted as travel, the point starts from the last building on the periphery of the town you live in.

2.  The continuity of the purpose of travel, i.e. if you change your mind and abort your journey, say half way, you should perform your prayer in full.  That is, if the distance covered in both directions was less than forty four kilometers.  If, however, the distance of the  outgoing journey and the return one was more than the stipulated minimum, you should say your prayer qasr.

3.  The aim behind the travel must be legitimate, i.e. not aiming at committing a haraam act, such as stealing, or the travel was unauthorized, as in the case of a wife embarking on a trip without the permission of her husband.  Travel for fun, such as going on a hunting expedition, does not yield qasr prayer.             

4.  Travelers who do not intend to stop at their home town, those who do not intend to stay a minimum of ten days, and those who remain undecided as to the length of their stay for a period of thirty days qualify for qasr prayer. 
*   And if   a) The intention to stay in one’s home town ten days and over, b) intention to stay for ten days in the destination, and c) they remain undecided for thirty days?
-  The people in the first two examples should say their prayer in full (tamam).  For the undecided, they should say tamam prayer after the thirtieth day for the duration of their stay thereafter. 

5.  If someone’s job involves travel, such as a driver, or their work entails frequent travel, they should say their prayer in full.
*   What about, say, a businessman, a student, or an employee who live in a town, more than twenty two kilometers away from their respective place of work or university, and need to cover that distance, more or less, on daily basis?
-   They must say their prayer in full (tamam).

6.  Those who have no permanent abode, such as roving tourist, should say their prayer in full.
*   If, during the journey, it was time for prayer, yet I did not say prayer there and then, until I returned to my hometown, what sort of prayer should I say?
-   You should say your prayer in full.
*   And if it was the other way round, i.e. I was in my hometown when it was time for prayer but could not say it there and then, and set out on a journey that qualifies for the minimum distance of forty four kilometres?
-   You should say your prayer qasr.

Salat: The Ritual Prayer

General Rules
  1. The mujtahids say that salat cannot be skipped under any circumstances. It means that it is not to be omitted whether one is traveling or at home; even if the time is running out, it is obligatory upon the Muslim, for example a traveler, to say his salat in a plane, ship, car, or a train whether stationary or moving; it could be performed any where: in the waiting room, in a public park, on the side of a road, or at the work-place, etc.

  2. When it is not possible for the traveler to say the salat in a plane or a car or a train in a standing position, he should say it while he is seated.
    If it is not possible for him to find the direction of the qiblah, he should face the direction that he most probably thinks to be the qiblah; if he is unable to prefer one direction to the other, he should pray in whatever direction he is facing. If it is not possible to face the qiblah except for takbiratul ihram (the opening "Allahu akbar"), he should at the least say the takbir facing the direction of qiblah. (See the question-answer section below.)

  3. It is permissible to ask the airhostess about the direction of the qiblah so that she may ask the pilot about it. If you have confidence in their information, you can rely on it even if they are non-Muslims.
    Similarly, it is permissible to rely on scientific instruments for determining the direction of the qiblah, for example the compass, if a Muslim is convinced about its correctness.

  4. If a Muslim cannot do wudhu (minor ritual ablution) for the salat, then he should do tayammum instead.

  5. The length of day and night differs from place to place. If the day and the night are clearly known by the rising of the sun and its setting, the Muslim should rely on the rising and the setting of the sun for determining the times for salat and fasting. This is so even if that means that the prayers have to be said more frequently shorter days or that fasting becomes lengthier shorter nights.

  6. In some places the sun does not set or does not rise at all for a number of days or months. As a matter of precaution Muslims should rely on the timings of the closest city that has night and day in a twenty-four hour period. Thus, they will, pray five salats according to the times of that closest city with the intention of qurbat in general [i.e., without saying ada (prayer on time) or qadha (prayer outside its time)].

  7. If it is not possible for a Muslim to determine the beginning of true dawn (fajr) or the midday or sunset for his prayers and fasting, and he has faith in the timings given by the observatories, he can rely on the same, even if the scientists running the observatories are non-Muslims-as long as you have faith in their determining true dawn or noon or sunset times.

  8. For a traveler, it is obligatory to say salat in qasr form; that is, he will recite the noon, afternoon and night prayers only two cycles (rak'at) [instead of the normal four rak'at] provided he travels for forty-four kilometers or more (in both ways), starting from the last houses of his city in normal cases.*
    There are detailed and specific rules in the Manual of Islamic Laws explaining when to pray qasr and when not to pray qasr while traveling. (For some rules, see the questions-answers at the end of this section.)

  9. Praying Friday salat with due attention to its required conditions is preferable to praying the noon salat, and is sufficient; that is, if a person says Friday prayer, he does not have to say noon prayer.

  10. Praying in congregation (jama'at) is preferable to praying individually. Its preference is stronger in the dawn, sunset and night prayers. A noble hadith says: "A salat [in congregation] behind a learned scholar is like [praying] a thousand cycles; and behind a Qurayshi is like [praying] a hundred cycles." As the number of the worshippers increases, the preference [and the reward] also increases.

* "In normal cases" means other than the major metropolitan cities where going from one end to another is considered traveling.

Performing tamam prayer

"Distance should be calculated from the point where a person is considered, according to urf, a traveler; it is the end of the bounds of the town, which may be the borough or neighborhood in some very big cities". Al-Minhaj, p.891.

Traveler (musafir)

Q34: A student, worker or employee studies or works in an area situated at more than 22 km from his city. He goes daily to his workplace and returns to his city, and there is a possibility that this will continue for a year or more. What is the ruling in this case with respect to his prayers and fasts (siyam)?

A: He should offer complete (tamm) prayers and observe the fasts. (FM, pp. 400-401)

Q35: What if he were to travel three or four times a week during the year, not because his job demands traveling, but for other purposes like sight-seeing and tourism or for treating a patient, visiting the shrines of the Imams (a.s.), etc. What is the ruling on his prayers?

A: He should perform complete prayers and observe the fasts, since, given his situation he is considered a frequent traveler according to convention (ëurf). If he were to travel twice a week and stay five days in his hometown [then it is obligatory for him to offer both the short (qasr) and the complete (prayers); and, in the month of Ramadan, to combine observance of the fasts in it (Ramadan) and their qada after it]. (FM, p. 401)

Q36: A mukallaf offers morning prayer in his city and then travels in a westerly direction. He arrives in a city in which the dawn has not yet appeared and then emerges. Or, he offers noon prayer in his city and then travels by air, arriving in a city where the sun has not begun to go down (noon), and only later begins its descent. Or, he offers the evening prayer in it (city), then travels to a city where the sun has not yet set, and then sets. Is he obliged to repeat the prayer in all these hypothetical situations?

A: There are two perspectives. It is a better precaution (to repeat the prayer), although apparently it is not (obligatory to repeat it). (MS, p. 464, Q81)

Q.5) As a result of expansion some cities, which used to comprise a number of townships, have become very big ones. Do you consider such cities as one [physically] or the old demarcations between its different neighborhoods should be observed? Say, you set out on a journey heading to some other destination, from the eastern most point. The time for prayer was due, while you were still within its boundaries, that is in the westernmost point. Do you perform your prayer tamam (in its entirety) or qasr (shortened form). Also, when you return to such a big city and the time for prayer was due, while you were in its outskirts, do you say your prayer qasr or tamam? And what is the ruling on fasting in such a situation?

As explained in the question, such a city is considered one, i.e. the rule of different towns is not applicable. Of course, the yardstick in calculating the distance is the definition of Musafir (traveler). If such a city is very big and it fulfils the definition, when the person embarks on his journey from his neighbourhood, though it be inside the city, the rule of Musafir applies here. Thus, the distance is calculated from the approaches of the neighborhood of the Mukkallaf. If the definition does not apply unless he gets out of the city, the end of the city should be the start of calculating the distance from the edge of tarakhus (the point at the parameter of a town, when, for instance, adhan "call for prayer" can be heard).

 
  1. Question: When should one say his salat full (tamam) and when should one say it qasr (two rakat instead of four)? Is the general perception about a person being resident of a city sufficient for him to say his salat fully [in that city]?
    Answer: The conditions for qasr in traveling have been mentioned in the Manual of Islamic Laws. When a person considers residing in a city for a long time, and in the general perception it is considered as such, he is not considered as a traveler (e.g., if he intends to reside in that city for year and a half, it will be considered as his home-town after one month). But if he intends to stay in that city for a short while only and is considered, in the general sense, as a visitor, he should pray qasr.

  2. Question: How can we know the time of mid-night? Do 00.00 hours the point of mid-night as it is commonly held by some people?
    Answer: Midnight is halfway between sunset and true dawn. So if the sun sets at 7 p.m. and the true dawn begins at 4 a.m., then midnight will be at 11:30 p.m. The criteria for determining midnight are the timings of sunset and true dawn, which differ according to place and season.

  3. Question: How can we say our obligatory prayers in an aircraft, especially if we do not know the direction of the qiblah taking into consideration the instability of the floor [because the plane is in motion]?
    Answer: As for the qiblah, it is possible to identify its direction by asking the captain or the airhostesses because their answers usually carry validity and are a source of assurance. One should therefore act accordingly.
    As for the stability of the floor where salat is to be performed, that condition will be waived when it is not possible to achieve it. However, other conditions of prayers should, wherever possible, be observed. Under no circumstance should the prayer be delayed beyond its appropriate time span.

  4. Question: How should we say our salat in trains and cars? Is it necessary to do prostration (sajda) on something or is it not necessary, in that would bending of the neck be sufficient?
    Answer: It is obligatory to say salat in the usual way where possible. So, one should face the qiblah in all stages of the salat; if not, at least while saying the opening takbir. Otherwise the condition of facing the qiblah will be dropped. Similarly, if it is possible to do the bowing (ruku') and prostration (sajdah) normally (e.g., in the aisle of the bus or the train), those parts of salat should be done normally. But if it is not possible, then one should try to bow normally for ruku' and sajdah [for example, from a sitting position on the seat or the berth of the train].
    For sajdah, one has to put the forehead on an item on which sajdah is valid, even if by lifting that item to the forehead. If bowing normally is not possible, one should just indicate by bending the neck [halfway for ruku and fully for sajdah].

(72) A mukallaf said Subh (dawn) prayer in his home town, he then traveled to a Western destination. He arrived at a town before dawn. Then dawn broke.

On a second assumption, he said Dhuhr (noon) prayer in his home town, then traveled by air. He arrived at a town where the sun was yet to enter into decline [to the West]. Then it entered into decline.

On a third one, he said Maghrib (sunset) prayer in his home town, then traveled arriving at a town where the sun has not yet set. Then sunset happened.

Is it obligatory on him to repeat his prayers in all these assumptions? There are two options. As a matter of ihtiyat, it is obligatory [that he repeats his prayers]. The second is that, alal adhhar, it is not obligatory.

(73) A mukallaf did not perform his prayer on time, such as in the case of sunrise or sunset without him being able to perform Subh, Dhuhr and Asr (afternoon) prayers. He travelled and arrived at a town where neither sunrise nor sunset has taken place. Should he perform his prayers adaa’ (as if they were performed at their prescribed times), qadhaa’ (in lieu), or ma fith thimmah (as if he was repaying a debt)?

There is more than one course of action. However, as a matter of ihtiyat, they should be performed with the niyyah of ma fith thimmah, meaning in a more general sense than performing them adaa’ or qadhaa’.

(74) A mukallaf, traveling by air, wanted to perform his prayer aboard the plane. If it was possible, i.e. fulfilling the conditions of facing the [direction] of qibla, stability of position, and others, his prayer is in order. Conversely, it will not be in order, as a matter of ihtiyat, especially if he still has such ample time that he would be able to perform it fulfilling all conditions, after he disembarks the plane.

In case, however, time was pressing, he should perform his prayer aboard the plane. If he was able to locate the direction of qibla, he should face that direction. His prayer would not be in order if he breaks the condition of direction, unless for a necessity. In this case, he should move towards the direction of the qibla whenever the aeroplane moves [in the opposite direction]; he should abstain from recitation during the time of moving. If it was not possible to set his face to the qibla, he should take account of the fact that it should be between right and left. If it was not possible to ascertain the direction of qibla, he should do his best to try to identify it and act according to what he has reached of guess work. If this was not feasible, he should perform his prayer facing any direction that might contain the qibla. As a matter of ihtiyat, however, he should perform his prayers once in each of [the] four directions..

This is being so if he was able to face the qibla, otherwise saying (takbiratul ihraam) - Allah is Great [one of the main parts of prayer, after niyyah] would do. If neither is possible, the condition regarding facing qibla ceases to be operative.

However, as a matter of strong possibility (al aqwa), it is permissible to board an aeroplane and the like as a matter of choice before the onset [of prayer], albeit with the knowledge that he would be obliged to perform prayer on board, not fulfilling the two conditions of facing the qibla and maintaining a stable position.

(75) A person traveled aboard an aeroplane [craft], whose speed is equal to that of the earth, heading towards the West from the East. The craft went into orbit around the earth for some time. In such a case, the five prayers should be performed in every twenty-four hour period with the niyyah of alqurbal mutlaqah (The intention for prayer done with a view to seeking nearness to Allah, i.e. without designating whether it is adaa’ or qadhaa’). As for fasting, it should later be performed qadhaa’.

If the speed of the [space craft] was double that of the earth, the cycle is, naturally, completed in periods of twelve hours. Is it obligatory on the traveler to perform Subh prayer at every dawn, Dhuhr and Asr prayers at every noon time, and Maghrib and Isha at every sunset?

As a matter of ihtiyat luzumi, [one should perform prayers in the manner suggested by the question, i.e. five prayers every twelve hours].

If, for example, the space craft orbited the earth at three-hour intervals or less, evidently it is not obligatory to perform prayers at every dawn, noon, and sunset. As a matter of ihtiyat, one should perform prayers at twenty-four hour cycles with the niyyah of alqurbal mutlaqah. To do so, one should take into consideration the occurrence of Subh prayer between two dawns, Dhuhr and Asr between a noon and a sunset that follows it, and Maghrib and Isha between a sunset and a midnight that follows it.

To sum up, if the movement of the craft was from the West to East and its speed was equivalent to that of the earth, evidently prayers should be performed at their prescribed times. Similarly, if its speed was less than that of the earth, or it was much more than that of the earth, such as the cycle is completed every three hours, the rules that should be applied are as discussed in the preceding paragraph.

(79) If the mukallaf was in a place where day light goes for six months on end and so as night, he should, as a matter of ihtiyat, observe the changing of day and night in a twenty-four hour cycle in the nearest town to where he lives. He could then perform the five prayers according to the time table of that town with the niyyah of al qurbal mutlaqah. As for fasting, he could move to a town where he could be able to perform fasting, either during Ramadhan or later. If neither is possible fidya (redemption) for not fasting should be in order.

The mukallaf is in a town that has day and night in a twenty-four hour cycle. The proportion, however, of day and night is such that day light is twenty-three hours and night time is one hour, or vice versa. The rules regarding prayer times should follow the sequence of day and night.

As for fasting Ramadhan, it should be performed as best as he could. Otherwise, it does not become obligatory. If it was possible to fast in lieu, it becomes obligatory. If not, fidya for not fasting becomes due.

FASTING WHILE TRAVEL
Fasting by a traveler

1723. A traveler for whom it is obligatory to shorten a four Rak'ats prayers to two Rak'ats, should not fast. However, a traveler who offers full prayers, like, a person who is a traveler by profession or who goes on a journey for a haraam purpose, should fast while traveling.

1724. There is no harm in traveling during the month of Ramadhan, but it is Makrooh to travel during the month to evade fasting. And similarly, it is Makrooh to travel before the 24th of Ramadhan unless traveling is undertaken for the purpose of Hajj or Umrah or for some important work.

1725. If it is obligatory on a person to observe a particular fast other than the fasts of Ramadhan, like, if he has undertaken to fast on behalf of someone against payment, or if it is the fast of the third day of I'tekaf, he cannot travel on that day, and if he is already on journey then he should make a Niyyat to stay there for ten days, if possible, and keep the fast.
And if it is an obligatory fast of Nadhr, traveling on that day is permissible, and it is not necessary to make an intention of staying there for ten days. Though, it is better not to travel unless it is absolutely necessary, and if he is already on a journey, he should have the Niyyat to stay there for 10 days.

1726. If a person makes a vow to observe a Mustahab fast and does not specify any day for it, he cannot keep the fast while traveling. However, if he makes a vow that he will observe fast on a particular day during a journey, he should observe that fast during the journey. Also, if he makes a vow that he will observe a fast on a particular day, whether he is journeying on that day or not, he should observe the fasts on that day even if he travels.

1727. A traveler can observe Mustahab fasts in Madinah for three days with the Niyyat of praying for the fulfilment of his wish, and as a precaution, those three days be Wednesday, Thursday and Friday.

1728. If a person does not know that the fast of a traveler is invalid and observes fast while journeying, and learns about the rule during the day, his fast becomes void, but if he does not learn about the rule till Maghrib, his fast is valid.

1729. If a person forgets that he is a traveler or forgets that the fast of a traveler is void, and observes fast while journeying, is fast is invalid.

1730. If a fasting person travels after Zuhr, he should, as a precaution, complete his fast. If he travels before Zuhr and had an intention from the previous night to do so, he cannot fast on that day. As a precaution, he cannot fast on that day even if he had no intention to travel from the previous night. In both the cases, he cannot break the fast till he has reached the limit of Tarakkhus. If he does, he will be liable to give Kaffarah.

1731. If a traveler in the month of Ramadhan, regardless of whether he was traveling before Fajr, or was fasting and then undertook the journey, reaches his hometown before Zuhr or a place where he intends to stay for ten days, and if has not committed an act which invalidates a fast, he should fast on that day. But if he has committed such an act, it is not obligatory on him to fast on that day.

1732. If a traveler reaches his hometown after Zuhr, or a place where he intends to stay for ten days, he cannot fast on that day.

1733. It is Makrooh for a traveler and for a person who cannot fast owing to some excuse, to have sexual intercourse or to eat or drink to his fill, during the day time in Ramadhan.

1706. If a person did not fast on certain days because of some excuse and later doubts about the exact date on which the excuse was over, it will not be obligatory on him to offer qadha basing his calculation on the higher number. For example, if a person travelled before the commencement of the month of Ramadhan, and now does not remember whether he returned on the 5th of Ramadhan or on the 6th, or if he travelled in the last days of the month of Ramadhan and returned after Ramadhan, and now does not remember whether he travelled on the 25th of Ramadhan or on the 26th, in both the cases, he can observe qadha based on the lesser number of days, that is, five days. However, the recommended precaution is that he should offer qadha for the higher number of days, that is, six days.

Suppose someone commutes daily to the place where they work, study, or go about their business; the place  happens to be over 22 km. away from where they live.  What form of prayer should they perform, and do they have to fast?
-  The prayer shall be tamam and they should fast too.

*  Should the journeying be irregular, say three times a week the year round, and the nature of business of the person concerned was not of  that which involves travel?

-  Such people should say their prayer in full and the same goes for fasting, because they fit the description of people who are “constantly on the move”, or (katheeris-safar).  If, however, such people make the trip twice a week, they [should combine both, praying tamam and qasr.  So do their fasting, i.e. they should fast Ramadhan and fast again later].

*  What shall become of the obligatory fasting of someone on a day when they travelled after zawal?
-  [They carry on with their fast], i.e. they are not required to make up for that day.

*  Should they make the journey before zawal, having intended to do so the night before, can they still fast?
-  [No, fasting should be observed on that day]; they should, therefore, break their fast upon getting to heddet-tarakhus (the point at the periphery of a town where, for example, adhan could be heard.  This concerns distances to determine whether prayer should be said tamam or qasr).  They should fast later to make up for that day.  The same ruling applies to such people as making the journey without niyyah the night before.

*  Someone returning from a trip arrived in their hometown after zawal.  Do they have to observe abstinence (imsak) for the rest of the day?
-  Although not obligatory, it is advisable for them to abstain from food and drink for the rest of the day.  The same applies to him who arrived before zawal and was not fasting because of travel.

*  If such people returned to their town of domicile before zawal and were observing fast, how should they go about it?
-  They should make niyyah of fasting and abstain from any acts that render fast that day invalid.  They are, therefore, not required to fast in lieu.

What about the person who is on a journey?
-  If he sets out for a journey after zawaal, [he should continue with his fast].  Should he set out before dawn, he should not fast.

RE QIBLA DIRECTION

A person who wishes to offer prayers, should make efforts to ascertain the direction of Qibla, and for that, he has to either be absolutely sure, or acquire such information as may amount to certainty, like testimony of two reliable persons. If that is not possible, he should form an idea from the Niche (Mehrab) of the Masjid or from the graves of the Muslims, or by other ways, and act accordingly. In fact, if a non-Muslim who can determine Qibla by scientific method, indicates Qibla satisfactorily, he can be relied upon.

791. If a person, who has a mere surmise about Qibla, and is in a position to have a better idea, he should not act on that guess work. For example, if a guest has an idea about the direction of Qibla on the statement of the owner of the house, but feels that he can acquire a firmer knowledge about Qibla by some means, he should not act on his host's words.

792. If a person does not possess any means of determining the direction of Qibla, or in spite of his efforts, he cannot form an idea about it, it will be sufficient for him to offer his prayers facing any direction. And the recommended precaution is that, if he has sufficient time at his disposal, he should offer the same prayers 4 times, each time facing every one of the four directions.

793. If a person is sure or guesses that Qibla is on one of the two directions, he should offer prayers facing both.

794. If a person has to offer prayers facing a few direction, and wants to offer two prayers like Zuhr prayers and Asr prayers, which should be offered one after the other, the recommended precaution is that he should offer the first namaz facing those few directions, and then commence the second prayers.

795. If a person who is not certain about the direction of Qibla, wishes to perform acts other than namaz, which should be done facing the Qibla like, slaughtering an animal, he should act according to his surmise about the direction of Qibla , and if that does not seem possible, then performing the act facing any direction will be valid.

Direction of Toilet -In case one does not know or cannot/does not find out the direction etc what r obligations?

SALATUL JAMAAT FOR TRAVELERS

If your salat was Qasr (i.e. 2-rakat wajib salat shortened due to traveling), then you can join the normal salatul jamaat to offer your 2-rakat qasr salat, but you should better avoid standing in the first row of salatul jamaat (because your salat is shorter than the normal full salat of the jamaat). You may stand in other rows or at the end of any row.
If you are offering a 2-rakat qasr salat (such as zohr, asr or isha) with a 4-rakat full salatul jamaat, starting from the first rakaat of the Imam, then after 2nd rakat, you will finish your salat with salam. Then, in order to maintain continuity in the salat, it is better if you stand up and offer another 2-rakat wajib salat (e.g. with niyyat of your qaza or qaza of your dead relative) by joining the Imam in the next ruku, and following the usual rule of salatul jamaat.

*  What if he travels after dawn?

-  In this case, [fasting is not in order, irrespective of whether or not it was clear in his mind that(76) The nature of business or job of a mukallaf is such that he should fast during traveling time. Dawn broke while he is still in his home town. He decided to travel by air with the intention of fasting. If he arrives at an other town while the dawn has not yet broken, is it permissible for him to eat and drink and do similar acts?

Evidently, it is permissible.

(77) During the month of Ramadhan, a traveler set on a journey from his home town ba’daz zawaal (after the sun disc has declined toward the West). He arrived at another town where the sun was still in a position before zawaal. Is it obligatory on him to abstain from eating and drinking, and thus complete his fasting?

As a matter of ihtiyat, it is the case.

(78) The nature of business or job of a mukallaf is such that he should fast during traveling time. He travelled from his home town where he sighted the new moon of Ramadhan, and arrived at another destination where no sighting has taken place. This is because the two destinations are located in two different horizons. It is not obligatory on him to fast for that day.

The new moon of Shawwal was sighted in a town and Eid (festivities marking the end of the fasting season) was celebrated. Then the mukallaf made a journey to another town, where the moon has not yet been sighted for difference of their horizons. As a matter of ihtiyat, abstaining from eating and drinking should be maintained for the rest of that day. Fasting c71) During Ramadhan, a fasting person travelled by air to a destination in the West. He did not break his fast in his place of residence. He then arrived at a place where the sun has not yet set. Is it obligatory on him to abstain from eating and drinking till the time of sun set?

Apparently, it is not obligatory, although abstaining is advisable as a matter of ihtiyat. should be performed at later date.

Q37: What is the ruling for a person who travels after noon (zuhr) during the month of Ramadan while fasting?
A:
[He should complete his fast] and there is no qada on him. (FM, p. 401) ??? he intended to travel the evening before].  He should, therefore, do qadha.

MISCELLANEOUS TRAVEL RULES

Q127: If a father says to his child: I know that there is no danger involved in your trip, my child, but your separation from me, your absence and the distance are really hard for me to bear and cause me suffering; it is for this reason that I forbid you to travel.
Follow up: Before I respond, let me ask you this question. If the child obeys his father and does not travel, will the cancellation of such a trip hurt him in any way?
Response: Absolutely not. The child will not suffer in any way, but he will be prevented from fulfilling his wish.
A:
In this case then, it is not permissible for him to go on the trip, as long as such travel causes his father suffering. (FM, pp. 435-36)

Question: If a Muslim is sure of his father’s displeasure —although he has not heard him say no— in his traveling abroad, is it permissible for him to travel, should he know that the journey is good for him?
Answer: If being kind towards the father —in the context mentioned earlier in the answer to a previous question— demands that the son should be close to him, or that the father will be in distress out of his concern for the son, he should not embark on  traveling as long as he will not be in loss; otherwise, it is not necessary for him to refrain [from traveling]. 

It is not permissible for the child to go against the express wish of his parents, for what makes them take such a stand is their concern for the wellbeing of their child.

*  Suppose the child wanted to travel, and the parents were sure that no harm would befall their child, yet the parents could not contemplate the idea of their child being away from them; it could upset them.  So, they objected to their child’s making such a journey. Can the child still make the trip?
-  Let me put it this way:  If the child was not going to suffer adversely from traveling, and his insistence on making the trip could result in upsetting his parents, he must not go away.

Boundaries of a city

Q48: There are extended cities with adjoining borders and sides which, in the past, were reckoned to be separate cities, but after prosperous growth, became one city. Do you regard them as one or several cities?
A person travels from the farthest point in the East (of the city) with the intention of traveling to another place, and the time for prayer comes when he is at the farthest westerly point (of the city). He wishes to pray. Should he pray qasr or does he pray complete?
And similarly, if he returns from a journey to the outskirts (of the city), and the time for prayer comes, does he pray qasr, or complete? What about the person who is fasting, and leaves (the city) or returns to it?

A:
The hypothetical cities all count as one. The rulings of separate cities does not actually apply to this case. True, the rule with respect to computing the distance is from the point at which the term ìtravelerî (musafir) becomes applied to someone. Were this city truly one of the larger cities and the term (ìtravelerî) is applied upon the exit of a person from his zone or area of residence, even if it is deemed to be inside the city, then the ruling of ìtravelerî applies on him.
And the distance would be computed from this point, which is considered hadd al-tarakhkhus with respect to that person. If the term (ìtravelerî) does not apply to him unless he leaves the (larger) city, then the last region of the city is to be counted as the beginning for distance measurement with respect to him. God knows best. (MMS, p. 32, Q64)

QASR SALAT: SHORTENED SALAT FOR A TRAVELER
Maulana Abul Qasim Rizvi, Panjtan Ctr, Melbourne 15
From www.panjtan.org

What is a Qasr Salat ? When a person travels out from his hometown (or normal town of residence) and if the required conditions are met, then it is wajib for the traveler to offer all his daily 4-rakat wajib salat (Zohr, Asr and Isha) as a 2-rakat salat. Such a salat is called qasr (shortened) salat. The other two wajib salat (Fajr and Maghrib) are not shortened for a traveler.
For consideration of Qasr Salat, a hometown is a place, where the person usually resides (or used to reside) and considers it as his hometown (watan). There can be more than one hometown for a person. For example, you may decide to consider both Melbourne and Karachi as your hometowns (Melbourne as your present hometown and Karachi as your ancestral hometown where you had spent a great part of your life). The decision is yours and should be based on traditional meaning of hometown.

CONDITIONS TO BE MET FOR QASR SALAT
A 4-rakat wajib salat will become a 2-rakat wajib salat for a traveler only if all the following conditions are met.

(1) Traveling Distance: The distance to be travelled during journey must be 44 km or more (one way journey or round trip journey) counted from the city boundary or the last house of the city.
*For round trip journey, the distance can be 22 km going out and 22 km returning, or some other combination (such as 20km and 24km), as long as the total journey is at least 44 km (whether returning on the same day or not).

(2) Limit of Departure (Hadde Tarakhus): After leaving the city boundary, the traveler must reach a point, called Hadde Tarakhus, at which he can start offering his Qasr Salat if he wishes. This point is defined as a place where the traveler is not able to see the people of that city.
*But if a traveler is not in his hometown, and travels out, the rule of Tarakhus will not apply to him. His salat will be Qasr as he travels from his place of residence.
*A traveler, who is returning to his hometown, will continue praying Qasr till he enters the hometown.
* If a traveler doubts at a point whether or not he has reached the point of Tarakhus, he should offer full salat at that point.

(3) Intention: Before starting the journey, the traveler must have a firm intention of traveling 44 km or more, and he must not change this intention while on his way before covering this distance.
*If the traveler changes his mind on his way, or remains undecided before covering a distance of 22 km, he should offer full salat (not Qasr) but while returning, if distance to be covered is 44 km or more, his salat will be qasr because it is an intended journey.

(4) Length of Stay: After reaching a destination, the salat will be qasr during the stay if the intention to stay there is less than 10 days.
*How to count 10 days ? This will depend upon when you arrive at your destination.
If you arrive near Fajr time, 10 days will be from sunrise of 1st day to sunset of 10th day.
If you arrive near Zohr time, 10 days will be from zohr of 1st day to zohr of 11th day.
If you arrive near Maghrib time or at night, 10 days will be from 1st night to 11th night.
Thus you should count full 10 daylight days after your arrival.
* A person who intends to stay for 10 days or more at a place will offer full salat at that place, but he will offer Qasr salat during his journey till he reaches that place.

(5) Purpose of Journey: The journey must not be haram (unlawful) or for haram purpose.
*If the journey is haram or for haram purpose, one should offer full salat, for example, the journey is to attend a haram musical function, or to give a false witness, etc.
* If journey by a son causes displeasure to his parents, or a journey by a wife is without husband’s permission, which also causes displeasure to him, then such a journey is haram, and salat will be full on such journey. But if such journey is to perform a wajib act (such as Hajj), then it is not haram.
*If the traveling is for haram purpose, then salat will be full when going out on such journey, but when returning, salat will be Qasr if other conditions are met (such as return journey is 44 km or more).

(6) Profession: Traveling should not be the profession or job of the traveler.
*If traveler’s profession is such that it is the means of his earnings (e.g. pilot, sailors, train or bus drivers etc), he will pray full salat. Such people will pray full salat even if they travel for their personal work, like transporting their own families.
*Those who live at one place and work or study at another place, commuting everyday, or every other day, like students or businessmen, will also pray full salat.
*If a person, whose profession is traveling, travels for another purpose, like Hajj, he should offer Qasr salat, except when he is a known frequent traveler.
*A traveler, whose profession for a part of the year is traveling, like a driver who works only in winter, should offer full salat during those journeys.
*A person, who is a nomad, who roams about temporarily at different places or who tours different cities, and has not adopted a homeland for himself, should offer full salat. But if he travels for Hajj or Ziyarat, his salat will be Qasr.

QASR SALAT: MISCELLANEOUS RULES

If a traveler knew that his salat was Qasr, but he offered full salat by mistake or intentionally, then he must offer his salat again as Qasr salat, or as qaza Qasr salat if the time has passed.
If a traveler does not know that he should offer Qasr salat, and he offers full salat, then his salat is OK.
Qaza of a Qasr salat is offered as qaza Qasr salat and qaza of a full salat is offered as qaza full salat, whether it is offered during traveling or not.
If a traveler intends to stay at a place for nine days or less, (thus offering Qasr salat), and after spending 9 days or less, he decides to extend his stay for further 9 days or less, he should offer Qasr salat, and so on, till 30 days, but he will start full salat from 31th day (even if he extends further for any number of days).
If a traveler stays at a place unexpectedly for 30 days, like, if he remains undecided throughout those 30 days whether he should stay or not, he should start offering full salat after 30 days, even if it be for a short period.
If a traveler intends to stay at a place for 10 days or more (thus requiring him to offer full salat), and then after arrival, he changes his mind to stay for 9 days or less, then he can offer Qasr salat only if he had not offered any 4-rakat wajib salat since arrival. But if he has offered any 4-salat wajib rakat (or fasted for one day) since arrival, then he will offer full salat.

OPTION OF QASR OR FULL SALAT IN CERTAIN PLACES

If you are traveling and other conditions of traveling are met, you can offer full salat or Qasr salat in the following four places.
(1) Masjidul Haram (Holy Kaaba) and whole city of Mecca
(2) Masjidun Nabi (Holy Prophet Mosque) and whole city of Madina
(3) Masjide Kufa and whole city of Kufa (in Iraq)
(4) Shrine of Imam Hussain AS Karbala (i.e. 25 arm length all around the sacred grave)

TRAVELING DURING MONTH OF RAMADAN
Lecture #9 Maulana Abul Qasim Rizvi, Panjtan Ctr, Melbourne 17

Fasting during the month of Ramadan is haram by a traveler (who fulfils the required conditions of traveling).
If a traveler did not know that fasting was not allowed for a traveler in Ramadan, and he fasted, and he came to know about this rule after completion of fasting, then his fast is valid. But if he came to know about this rule during that fasting, then his fast is invalid, and he has to offer qaza of that fast after Ramadan.
If the traveler forgot the rule that fasting was not allowed for a traveler in Ramadan, and he fasted, then his fast is invalid.
Traveling is makrooh (undesirable) before 24th of Ramadan, but it is not makrooh if the traveling is intended to perform Umrah or for Hajj.
If you start your journey after zawal time (Islamic mid-day) in Ramadan, then it is wajib to complete fasting for that day.
If you start your journey before zawal time in Ramadan, then it is wajib to start fast on that day, and then your fast will automatically break after you have reached Hadde Tarakhus (Limit of Departure).
If you were traveling, and you returned to your home (or arrive at a place where you have to stay for 10 days or more) after zawal time in Ramadan, then you can not fast on that day, but it is mustahab to respect fasting on that day.
If you were traveling, and you returned to your home (or arrive at a place where you have to stay for 10 days or more) before zawal time in Ramadan, then it is wajib to keep fast for that day provided you have not done anything which breaks fast. But if you have done anything which breaks fast, then you can not fast on that day, and will do qaza fast after Ramadan.
If you are a traveler during any month, and stay somewhere for less than 10 days, then you can not keep even mustahab fast or qaza fast of previous Ramadan during your stay..
If you are a traveler, and stay somewhere for less than 10 days, then you can keep a Mustahab fast (e.g. 17th Rabiul Awwal) during such stay, only if you had made a nazr (vow) that you will keep that specific mustahab fast on that day.
If you are a traveler in Madina, it is allowed to fast in Madina for three consecutive days ( better recommended to fast on Wednesday, Thursday and Friday) for your hajaat (fulfillment of your wishes) there, even if your stay is shorter than 10 days.

 

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