This document is a collection of relevant
Masail & Q & A from the 4 books Islamic laws ,
Jurisprudence made easy , Contemporary legal
rulings & Current Legal Issues. In order to make
one complete document which
can guide travelers of all Travel related
shortened form of prayer: A concession for a
musafir (Traveler) to perform
a two raka'a prayer instead of the full four
raka'a one (see tamam).
point away from the boundary of a city whose
inhabitants cannot be seen. Some jurists
consider it to be a point from where the city's
call to prayers (adhan) cannot be heard.
However, Ayatollah Seestani objects to this
latter definition.(MSp.297, Q918)
Islamic Laws - Prayers of
a traveler (Musafir)
A traveler should reduce the Rak'ats
in Zuhr, Asr and Isha prayers, that is, he
should perform two Rak'ats instead of four,
subject to the following eight conditions:
The first condition..
is that his
journey is not less than 8 farsakh . A farsakh
in shariah is a little less than 51/2
kilometers. (When converted into miles, 8
farsakh is equal to 28 miles approximately).
the total of outward journey and return journey
is 8 farsakh, even if the single journey either
way does not equal 4 farsakh, he should shorten
his prayers. Therefore, if his outward journey
is 3 farsakh, and his return is 5 farsakh, or
vice versa, he should offer shortened prayers,
that is, of two Rak'ats
the total of outward and return journey is just
8 farsakh, the traveler should shorten his
prayers, even if he does not return on the same
day or night. However, as a precaution, he
should also offer complete prayers.
1283. If a
brief journey is less than 8 farsakh or if a
person does not know whether or not his journey
is 8 farsakh, he should not shorten his prayers.
If he doubts whether or not his journey is 8
farsakh, it is not necessary for him to
investigate, he should offer complete prayers.
an 'Adil or a reliable person tells a traveler
that the distance covered in his journey equals
8 farsakh, he should shorten his prayers, if he
1285. If a
person believed that his journey equaled 8
farsakh, and he shortened his prayers, and
learnt later that it was not 8 farsakh, he
should offer four Rak'ats of prayers, and if the
time for the prayers has lapsed, he should
perform its qadha.
1286. If a
person is sure that his journey is not of 8
farsakh, or if he doubts whether or not it is of
8 farsakh , if he realizes on his way that the
distance of his journey had been 8 farsakh, he
should offer shortened prayers, even if very
little remains of his journey. If he has offered
complete prayers, he should offer it again in
the shortened form, but if the times of namaz
has lapsed, there is no qadha for it.
1287. If a
person frequents between two places which are
less than 4 farsakh apart, he should offer
complete prayers, even if the total distance
covered by him may add up to 8 farsakh.
two roads lead to a place, one of them less than
8 farsakh away, and the other 8 farsakh or more,
the traveler will offer shortened prayers if he
travels by the road which is 8 farsakh away, and
complete prayers if he travels by the road which
is less than 8 farsakh away.
beginning of 8 farsakh should be calculated from
a point beyond which he will be deemed a
traveler, and this point is represented by the
last boundary of a city. In certain very big
cities, it would be probably reckoned from the
end of locality.
The second condition..
is that the
traveler should intend at the time of the
commencement of the journey, to cover a distance
of 8 farsakh. If he travels up to a point which
is less than 8 farsakh away, and after reaching
there decides to go further, and the two
distances, when combined total 8 farsakh, he
should offer full prayers.
This is so, because he did not intend traveling
8 farsakh when he commenced his journey. But if
he decides to travel further 8 farsakh from
there, or to go to a distance of 4 farsakh and
then to cover another 4 farsakh to return home,
or to go to a place where he intends staying for
10 days, he should shorten his prayers.
person who does not know how many farsakh his
journey would be, like, if he travels in search
of something not knowing how far he will have to
go, should offer full prayers. But, if the
return journey to his home, or up to a place
where he intends staying for 10 days, is 8
farsakh or more, he should offer shortened
prayers. Moreover, if he makes a niyyat, during
the journey, that he will travel 4 farsakh and
again return covering 4 farsakh, he should
shorten his prayers.
traveler should offer shortened prayers only
when he is firmly determined to travel 8
farsakh. Hence, if a person goes outside the
city thinking that he would cover 8 farsakh if
he finds a companion, he will offer shortened
prayers only if he is sure that he will find a
companion. And if he is not sure to find one, he
should pray full.
person who intends to travel 8 farsakh, will
pray shortened prayers even if he covers little
distance every day. But he will do this when he
has reached the point beyond which traveling
begins, as explained in rule no.
However, if his journey is at such a slow pace,
that it cannot be considered a journey, then, as
per obligatory precaution, he should pray both,
full and shortened prayers.
1293. If a
person who is under the control of another
person while on a journey, like, a servant
traveling with his master, knows that his
journey is 8 farsakh, he should offer shortened
prayers. But if he does not know, he should
offer full prayers, and it is not necessary for
him to inquire.
1294. If a
person, who is under the control of another
person while on a journey, knows or thinks that
he will get separated from that person before
reaching 4 farsakh, he should offer full
1295. If a
person who is under the control of another
person while on a journey, feels that he would
separate from that person before reaching 4
farsakh, he should offer full prayers. But if he
feels sure that he would not separate, at the
same time having a faint presentiment that an
impediment might occur in the journey, he should
offer shortened prayers.
The third condition..
is that the
traveler should not change his mind while on his
way. If he changes his mind, or is undecided
before covering 4 farsakh, he should offer full
after covering a distance which would add up to
make 8 farsakh on return, the traveler abandons
the journey, and if he decides to remain at that
place, or to return after 10 days, or is
undecided about returning or staying there, he
should offer full prayers.
1297. If a
person abandons the journey after reaching a
distance which would add up to make 8 farsakh on
return, and decides to return, he should offer
shortened prayers even if he wants to stay there
for less than 10 days.
1298. If a
person commences his journey to go to a place
which is at a distance of 8 farsakh, and after
covering a part of the journey, decides to go
elsewhere, and the distance between the place
from where he started his journey, up to the new
place, is 8 farsakh, he should shorten his
1299. If a
person, before reaching 8 farsakh, becomes
undecided about proceeding further, and if he
stops his journey, and later decides to proceed
to complete the intended journey, he should
offer shortened prayers till the end of his
1300. If a
person, before covering 8 farsakh, becomes
undecided about proceeding further, and in the
same state of indecision continues traveling,
till he decides to go further for 8 farsakh, or
for a distance which would add up to make 8
farsakh on return, he should pray shortened
prayers till the end, regardless of whether he
wants to return the same day or night, or stay
there for less than 10 days.
before covering a distance of 8 farsakh a,
traveler becomes undecided whether he should
complete the journey or not, and decides later
to do so, if his remaining journey is less than
8 farsakh, he should offer full prayers. But if
the distance covered before indecision and the
remaining distance, both add up to 8 farsakh, he
will offer shortened prayers.
The fourth condition..
is that the
traveler does not intend to pass through his
home town and stay there, or to stay at some
place for 10 days or more, before he reaches a
distance of 8 farsakh. Hence a person, who
intends to pass through his home town and stay
there, or to stay at a place for 10 days, before
he reaches of 8 farsakh, he should offer full
person, who does not know whether or not he will
pass through his home town and stay there,
before reaching 8 farsakh, or through a place
where he will stay for 10 days, should offer
person who wishes to pass through his home town
and stay there, before he reaches 8 farsakh, or
to stay at a place for 10 days, or if he is
undecided about it, should offer complete
prayers even if he later abandons the idea of
passing through his home town, or staying at a
place for 10 days. However, if the remaining
journey is of 8 farsakh or adds upto 8 farsakh
on return, he should shorten his prayers.
The fifth condition..
is that the
purpose of traveling should not be haraam.
Therefore, if a person travels to do something
unlawful, like, to commit theft, he should offer
full prayers. The same rule applies when
traveling itself is haraam, like, when traveling
involves a harm which is haraam in Shariah, or
when a wife travels without the permission of
her husband for a journey which is not
obligatory upon her. But if it is an obligatory
journey, like that of Wajib Hajj, then shortened
prayers should be offered.
journey which is not obligatory, and is a cause
of displeasure of one's parents, is haraam, and
while going on such a journey, one should offer
full prayers and should also fast.
person whose journey is not haraam, nor is it
for a purpose which is haraam, should shorten
his prayers even if he may, during the journey,
commit some sin like, indulging in Gheebat or
1306. If a
person undertakes a journey to avoid some
obligatory act, regardless of whether he has
some other purpose attached to it, he should
offer full prayers. Hence, if a person owes some
money, and he undertakes a journey to avoid the
demand of his creditor, he should offer full
prayers. However, if his journey has different
purpose, he should shorten his prayers, even if
he leaves out some obligatory acts during that
1307. If a
person travels on a vehicle or on an animal
which is usurped, and travels to escape from the
rightful owner, or if he travels on a usurped
land, he will offer full prayers.
1308. If a
person is traveling with an oppressor, of his
own volition, and by so doing is helpful to the
oppressor in his inequity, he should offer full
prayers. But if he is helpless, or, if he is
traveling with the oppressor to save the
oppressed person, he should shorten his prayers.
a person travels for recreation and outing, his
journey is not haraam, and he should shorten his
1310. If a
person goes out for hunting, with the object of
sport and pleasure, his prayers during the
outward journey will be full, and on return it
will be qasr if it does not involve hunting. But
if a person goes out for hunting, to earn his
livelihood, he should offer shortened prayers.
Similarly, if he goes for business and increase
in his wealth, he will pray qasr, although in
this case, the precaution is that he should
offer qasr as well as full prayers.
1311. If a
person has journeyed to commit a sin, he should,
on his return, shorten his prayers, if the
return journey alone covers 8 farsakh. And the
recommended precaution is that if he has not
done Tawba, he should offer qasr as well as full
1312. If a
person traveling with the purpose of committing
a sin, abandons the idea during his journey, he
will pray qasr even if the remaining distance
from there, or the total of going and returning
from there is not 8 farsakh.
1313. If a
person who originally set forth on a journey
with no intention of sin, decides during his
journey to make it a journey of sin, he will
offer full prayers. However, the prayers which
he might have prayed in qasr form up till then,
will be in order.
The sixth condition..
is that the
traveler should not be a nomad, who roam about
in the deserts, and temporarily stay at places
where they find food for themselves, and fodder
and water for their animals, and again proceed
to some other place after a few days' halt.
During these journeys the nomads should offer
1314. If a
nomad travels to find out residence for himself,
and pasture for his animals, and carries his bag
and baggage with him, he should offer full
prayers, otherwise if his journey is 8 farsakh
he should shorten his prayers.
a nomad travels for Ziyarat, Hajj (pilgrimage),
trade or any other similar purpose, he should
shorten his prayers.
The seventh condition..
is that traveling
should not be his profession, that is, one who
has no other work but traveling; or that
traveling is the means of his subsistence, like
the camel riders, drivers, herdsmen and sailors.
Such people will pray full, even if they travel
for their personal work, like transporting their
own household effects, or transporting their
families. Those who live at one place and work
at another, commuting every day, or every other
day, like students or businessmen etc., fall in
1316. If a
person whose profession is traveling, travels
for another purpose like, for Hajj, he should
shorten his prayers except when he is a known
frequent traveler. If, for example, the driver
of automobile hires out his vehicle for
pilgrimage, and incidentally performs pilgrimage
himself as well, he should offer full prayers.
1317. If a
person whose profession is that of a courier,
that is, a person who travels to transport the
pilgrims to Makkah, is traveling, he should
offer full prayers, and if his profession is not
traveling and he travels only during Hajj days
for the purpose of portage, the obligatory
precaution is that he should offer qasr as well
as full prayers. However, if the period of his
journey is short, like two or three weeks, he
may offer shortened prayers.
1318. If a
person whose profession is that of a courier who
takes pilgrims to Makkah from distant places,
spends a considerable part of the days in a year
traveling, he should offer full prayers.
person whose profession for a part of the year
is traveling, like a driver who hires out his
automobile during winter or summer, should offer
full prayers during those journeys, and the
recommended precaution is that he should offer
qasr prayers, as well as full prayers.
1320. If a
driver or a hawker, who goes round within an
area of 2 or 3 farsakh in the city, happens to
travel on a journey consisting of 8 farsakh, he
should shorten his prayers.
1321. If a
person whose profession is traveling, stays in
his home town for 10 days or more, with or
without the original intention, he should offer
full prayers during the first journey that he
undertakes after ten days. The same rule will
apply, when he travels after ten days from a
place which is not his home town.
1322. If a
herdsman whose profession is traveling, stays at
his home town or any other place for 10 days
with or without any intention, he should, as a
recommended precaution, perform both qasr and
full prayers when he undertakes his first
journey after ten days.
herdsmen or camel drivers who have traveling as
their profession, find it difficult and
exhausting to conduct a particular additional
journey, they should pray qasr in it.
person who tours different cities, and has not
adopted a homeland for himself, should offer
1325. If a
person whose profession is not traveling, has to
travel quite often to transport a commodity he
owns, he will pray qasr, unless the traveling is
so frequent that he becomes known as a constant
1326. If a
person is not a professional traveler, and he
has abandoned his homeland and wants to adopt
another homeland, he should shorten his prayers
while he is traveling.
The eighth condition..
is that the
traveler reaches the limit of tarakhkhus, that
is, at a point beyond which traveling begins.
But if a person is not in his hometown, the rule
of tarakhkhus will not apply to him. Just as he
travels from his place of residence, his prayers
will be qasr.
limit of tarakhkhus is a place where people of
the city do not see the traveler, and its sign
is, when he does not see them.
traveler who is returning to his hometown will
continue praying qasr, till he enters the
hometown. Similarly, a person who intends to
stay for ten days at a place, will offer qasr
prayers, till he reaches that place.
1329. If a
city is situated at such a height, that the
residents can be seen from a distance, or, if it
is so low that if a person covers a little
distance, he would not see them, a traveler from
that city should offer qasr prayers applying
that distance, which would make him unable to
see them were he traveling on a flat land. And
if the elevation or depression of the path
varies abnormally, the traveler should take an
average mean into consideration.
1330. If a
person starts his journey from a place which is
uninhabited, he should shorten his prayers when
he reaches a place from which the residents, if
they had been there, would not have been seen.
1331. If a
person traveling in a ship or on a train, starts
praying full prayers before reaching the point
of tarakhkhus, and if he reaches that point
before having gone into the Ruku of the third
Rak'at, he should pray qasr.
the situation mentioned above, if he reaches the
point of tarakhkhus after the Ruku of the third
Rak'at, he can abandon that prayer, and pray
1333. If a
person was sure that he had reached the point of
tarakhkhus, and accordingly started praying qasr,
and then he realized that at the time of
prayers, he had not reached that point, he
should pray again. At that time when he realized
this, if he has still not reached the point of
tarakhkhus, he will pray full, and if he has
already crossed the point, he will pray qasr.
And if the time of prayer has lapsed, he will
1334. If a
person is gifted with an unusually sharp
eyesight, enabling him to see from a distance
where others may not be able to see, he will
pray qasr from a point from where a person with
normal vision would not see the residents.
a person doubts whether or not he has reached
the point of tarakhkhus he should offer full
traveler who is passing through his hometown, if
he makes a stopover there, he will pray full,
otherwise, as an obligatory precaution, he will
combine both, full as well as qasr prayers.
a traveler reaches his hometown during his
journey, and makes a stopover there, he should
offer full prayers as long as he stays there.
But, if he wishes to go from there to a distance
of 8 farsakh, or to go upto 4 farsakh and then
return for the same distance, he should offer
qasr prayers when he reaches the limit of
place which a person adopts for his permanent
living is his home, irrespective of whether he
was born there, or whether it was the home of
his parents, or whether he himself selected it
as his residence.
1339. If a
person intends to stay for some time at a place
which is not his original home town, and to
later migrate to another place, then such a
place will not be considered as his home (Watan).
place which a person adopts for his residence is
his hometown (watan) even if he has not made a
specific intention to live there for ever. It is
his watan, if the people there do not consider
him a traveler, in spite of his sojourn at other
place where he may be putting up for ten or less
1341. If a
person lives at two places, for example, he
lives in one city for six months, and in another
for another six months, both of them are his
home (watan). And, if he adopts more than two
places for his living, all of them are reckoned
to be his home (watan).
Fuqaha have said that if a person owns a house
at a place, and lives there continuously for six
months, with the intention of living there, he
should, as long as that house is owned by him,
offer full prayers as and when he travels to
that place. But this verdict is not evidenced.
1343. If a
person reaches a place which was previously his
home, but has since abandoned it, he should not
offer full prayers there, even if he may not
have adopted a new home (watan).
1344. If a
traveler intends to stay at a place continuously
for ten days, or knows that he will be obliged
to stay at a place for ten days, he should offer
full prayers at that place.
1345. If a
traveler intends to stay at a place for ten
days, it is not necessary that his intention
should be to stay there during the first night
or the eleventh night. And as soon as he
determines that he will stay there from sunrise
on the first day up to sunset of the tenth day,
he should offer full prayers. Same will apply
if, for example, he intends staying there from
noon of the first day up to noon of the eleventh
person who intends to stay at a place for ten
days, should offer full prayers if he wants to
stay for ten days at that place only. If he
intends to spend, for example, ten days between
Najaf and Kufa, or between Tehran and Shamiran,
he should offer qasr prayers.
1347. If a
traveler who wants to stay at a place for ten
days, has determined at the very outset, that
during the period of ten days, he will travel to
surrounding places up to the limit of tarakhkhus
or more, and if the period of his going and
returning is so brief, that it cannot be
considered as infringement of his intention of
staying there for 10 days, he should offer full
But if it is considered as an infringement, then
he should pray qasr. For example, if he is away
from that place for a day and a night, then that
prolonged period will be breaking the intention,
and he will pray qasr. But if he was away for,
say, half a day, returning by the evening, it
will not be considered as breaking the
intention. Of course, if he travels frequently
from that place, giving an impression that he is
visiting two or more places, then he will pray
traveler, who is not determined to stay at a
place for ten days, like, if his intention is
that he will stay there for ten days if his
friend arrives, or if he finds a good house to
stay in, he should offer qasr prayers.
1349. If a
traveler has decided to stay at a place for ten
days, but at the same time, considers it
probable that he may have to leave earlier
because of some hindrance, and if that suspicion
is justifiable, he should offer shortened
1350. If a
traveler knows, for example, that ten days or
more remain before the month ends, and decides
to stay at a place till the end of the month he
should offer full prayers. But if he does not
know how many days remain before the end of the
month, and simply decides to stay till the end
of the month, he should pray qasr, even if it
later turns out to be ten or more days.
1351. If a
traveler decides to stay at a place for ten days
and abandons the idea before offering one namaz
consisting of four Rak'ats, or becomes
undecided, he should pray qasr. But, if he
abandons the idea of staying there after having
offered one namaz consisting of four Rak'ats, or
wavers in his intention, he should offer full
prayers as long as he is at that place.
1352. If a
person who has determined to stay at a place for
ten days, keeps a fast and abandons the idea of
staying there after Zuhr, if he has offered one
namaz consisting of four Rak'ats, his fast on
that day, and for as long as he is there, would
be valid, and he should offer full prayers. And
if he has not offered a namaz consisting of four
Rak'ats, the fast kept by him on that day should
be, as a precaution, continued and its qadha be
given later. He will then pray qasr, and will
not fast in the remaining days.
1353. If a
traveler who has decided to stay at a place for
ten days, abandons the idea, but doubts before
changing his intention to stay, whether or not
he has offered one namaz consisting of four
Rak'ats, he should offer qasr prayers.
1354. If a
traveler starts prayers with the intention of
qasr, and decides during the prayers that he
would stay there for ten days or more, he should
offer full prayers consisting of four Rak'ats.
1355. If a
traveler who has decided to stay at a place for
ten days, changes his mind during his first
namaz consisting of four Rak'ats, he should
finish his prayers with two Rak'ats if he has
not started the third. And in the later days, he
should continue with qasr. Similarly, if he has
started the third Rak'at, but has not gone into
Ruku, he should sit down, and complete the namaz
in its shortened form. But if, he has gone into
Ruku, he can forsake that namaz, and pray again
as qasr. And for as long as he is there, he
should pray qasr.
1356. If a
traveler who has decided to stay at a place for
ten days, stays there for more than ten days, he
should offer full prayers as long as he does not
start traveling, and it is not necessary that he
should make a fresh intention for staying for
further ten days.
traveler who decides to stay at a place for ten
days, should keep the obligatory fast; he may
also keep Mustahab fast, and offer Nafila (Mustahab
everyday prayers) of Zuhr, Asr and Isha prayers.
1358. If a
traveler, who has decided to stay at a place for
ten days, if after offering a namaz of four
Rak'ats (not qadha), or after staying for ten
days even without having offered one set of full
prayers, wishes to travel less than 4 farsakh
away and to return, and to stay again at his
first place for ten days or less, he should
offer full prayers from the time he goes till he
returns, and after his return.
But if his return to the place of his stay is
only for passing through, on a journey of eight
farsakh or more, it will be necessary for him to
offer qasr prayers at the time of going,
returning, and also at that place.
1359. If a
traveler who decides to stay at a place for ten
days, after offering namaz (not qadha) of four
Rak'ats, decides to go to another place less
than 8 farsakh away, and to stay there for ten
days, he should offer full prayers while going,
and at the place where he intends to stay. But,
if the place where he wants to go is 8 farsakh
away or more, he should shorten his prayers
while going, and if he does not want to stay
there for ten days, he should shorten his
prayers during the period he stays there also.
1360. If a
traveler who has decided to stay at a place for
ten days, wishes, after offering namaz (not
qadha) of four Rak'ats, to go to a place which
is less than 4 farsakh away, and is undecided
about returning to his first place, or is
totally unmindful about it, or he wishes to
return, but is uncertain about staying for ten
days, or is totally unmindful of staying there
for ten days, or traveling from there, he should
from the time of his going till returning, and
after his return offer full prayers.
1361. If a
person decides to stay at a place for ten days,
under the impression that his companions wish to
stay there for ten days, and after offering
namaz (not qadha) of four Rak'ats, he learns
that they have made no such decision, he should
offer full prayers as long as he is there, even
if he himself gives up the idea of remaining
1362. If a
traveler stays at a place unexpectedly for
thirty days, like, if he remained undecided
throughout those thirty days, whether he should
stay there or not, he should offer full prayers
after thirty days, even it be for a short
1363. If a
traveler intends to stay at a place for nine
days or less, and if after spending nine days or
less, he decides to extend his stay for further
nine days or less, till thirty days, he should
offer full prayers on the thirty first day.
undecided traveler will offer full prayers after
thirty days, if he stays for all thirty days at
one place. If he stays for a part of that period
at one place, and the rest at another & 127;
place, he should offer qasr prayers even after
traveler can offer full prayers in Masjidul
Haram and Masjidul Nabi and Masjid of Kufa, and
even in the entire cities of Makkah, Madina and
Kufa. He can also offer full prayers in the
Haram of Imam Husayn (A.S.), upto the distance
of 25 arm lengths from the sacred tomb.
1366. If a
person who knows that he is a traveler, and
should offer qasr prayers, intentionally offers
full prayers at places other than the four
mentioned above, his prayers are void. And the
same rule applies, if he forgets that a traveler
must offer qasr prayers, and prays full.
However, if he prays full forgetting that a
traveler should offer shortened prayers, and
remembers after the time has lapsed, it is not
necessary for him to give the qadha.
1367. If a
person who knows that he is a traveler, and
should offer shortened prayers, offers full
prayers by mistake, and realises within the time
for that namaz, he should pray again. And if he
realizes after the lapse of time, he should give
qadha as a precaution.
a traveler does not know that he should shorten
his prayers, and if he offers full prayers, his
prayers are in order.
1369. If a
traveler knew that he should offer shortened
prayers, but did not know its details, like, if
he did not know that shortened prayers should be
offered when the distance of the journey is of 8
farsakh, and if he offers full prayers, as an
obligatory precaution, he should repeat the
prayers if he comes to know the rule within the
time of namaz, and if he does not do that, he
will give its qadha. But if he learns of the
rule after the time has lapsed, there is no
1370. If a
traveler knows that he should offer shortened
prayers, but offers full prayers under the
impression that his journey is less than 8
farsakh, when he learns that his journey has
been of 8 farsakh, he should repeat the prayers
as qasr. And if he learns after the time for the
prayers has lapsed, it is not necessary for him
to offer qadha.
1371. If a
person forgets that he is a traveler and offers
complete prayers, and if he remembers this
within the time for prayers, he should pray qasr,
and if he realizes this after the time is over,
it is not obligatory for him to offer qadha of
1372. If a
person who should offer complete prayers, offers
qasr instead, his prayers are void in all
circumstances; and as a precaution, this will
apply even when he ignorantly prays qasr, at a
place where he stopped for 10 days.
1373. If a
person begins a prayer of four Rak'ats, and
remembers during prayers that he is a traveler,
or realises that his journey is of 8 farsakh, if
he has not gone into the Ruku of the third
Rak'at, he should complete namaz with two
Rak'ats. But if he has gone into the Ruku of the
third Rak'at, his prayer is void. If he has at
his disposal, time even to offer one Rak'at, he
should offer qasr prayers.
1374. If a
traveler is not aware of some of the details
regarding the prayers during travel, for
example, if he does not know that if he goes on
an outward journey of 4 farsakh, and a return
journey of 4 farsakh, he should offer shortened
prayers, and he engages in prayers with the
intention of offering four Rak'ats, if he comes
to know the rule before Ruku of the third Rak'at,
he should complete the prayers with two Rak'ats.
But if he learns of this rule during Ruku, his
prayers as a precaution are void. And if he has
time at his disposal, even to offer one Rak'at
of prayers, he should offer qasr prayers.
1375. If a
traveler who should offer complete prayers,
ignorantly makes a niyyat for qasr and learns
about the rule during namaz, he should complete
the namaz with four Rak'ats, and the recommended
precaution is that after the completion of the
prayers, he should offer a prayer of four
Rak'ats once again.
before the time of prayers lapses, a traveler
who has not offered prayers reaches his
hometown, or a place where he intends to stay
for ten days, he should offer full prayers. And
if a person who is not on a journey, does not
offer prayers within its time, and then proceeds
on a journey, he should offer the prayers during
his journey in shortened form.
the Zuhr, Asr, or Isha prayers of a traveler,
who should have offered qasr prayers, becomes
qadha, he should perform its qadha as qasr, even
if he gives qadha at his hometown or while he is
not traveling. And if a non-traveler makes one
of the above three prayers qadha, he should
perform its qadha as full, even if he may be
traveling at the time he offers the qadha.
1378. It is
Mustahab that a traveler should say thirty times
after every qasr prayers: "Subhanallahi
walhamdu lillahi wala ilaha illallahu wallahu
Akbar". More emphasis is laid on this after
Zuhr, Asr and Isha prayers. In fact, it is
better that it is repeated sixty times after
these three prayers.
Dialogue on prayer – while
While we were
still on the subject of prayer, in this part two
of the dialogue, I wanted to test my memory as
to the information I had acquired.
So, before my father resumed the talk, I asked
him if I could say isha prayer by doing two
- No, didn’t I tell you it is a four-ruku
* The reason why I asked is that I saw you
once perform it as such.
- On that occasion, were we on a journey?
- It is true. The reason being that there is
a concession for the believers, in that when
they are on a journey, they are required to do
only two rukus, i.e. qasr prayer of the four-raka’
prayers of dhuhr, asr, and isha prayers,
provided that certain requirements are met.
1. The distance covered by any
trip, from the home of the mukallaf, must be at
least forty four kilometers, be it one way or
* What is the point of calculating the
- If you satisfy what is generally accepted as
travel, the point starts from the last building
on the periphery of the town you live in.
2. The continuity of the purpose
of travel, i.e. if you change your mind and
abort your journey, say half way, you should
perform your prayer in full. That is, if the
distance covered in both directions was less
than forty four kilometers. If, however, the
distance of the outgoing journey and the return
one was more than the stipulated minimum, you
should say your prayer qasr.
3. The aim behind the travel must
be legitimate, i.e. not aiming at committing a
haraam act, such as stealing, or the travel was
unauthorized, as in the case of a wife embarking
on a trip without the permission of her
husband. Travel for fun, such as going on a
hunting expedition, does not yield qasr
4. Travelers who do not intend to
stop at their home town, those who do not intend
to stay a minimum of ten days, and those who
remain undecided as to the length of their stay
for a period of thirty days qualify for qasr
* And if a) The intention to stay in one’s
home town ten days and over, b) intention to
stay for ten days in the destination, and c)
they remain undecided for thirty days?
- The people in the first two examples should
say their prayer in full (tamam). For the
undecided, they should say tamam prayer after
the thirtieth day for the duration of their stay
5. If someone’s job involves
travel, such as a driver, or their work entails
frequent travel, they should say their prayer in
* What about, say, a businessman, a student,
or an employee who live in a town, more than
twenty two kilometers away from their respective
place of work or university, and need to cover
that distance, more or less, on daily basis?
- They must say their prayer in full (tamam).
6. Those who have no permanent
abode, such as roving tourist, should say their
prayer in full.
* If, during the journey, it was time for
prayer, yet I did not say prayer there and then,
until I returned to my hometown, what sort of
prayer should I say?
- You should say your prayer in full.
* And if it was the other way round, i.e. I
was in my hometown when it was time for prayer
but could not say it there and then, and set out
on a journey that qualifies for the minimum
distance of forty four kilometres?
- You should say your prayer qasr.
Salat: The Ritual Prayer
say that salat cannot be skipped under any
circumstances. It means that it is not to be
omitted whether one is
traveling or at home; even if the
time is running out, it is obligatory upon
the Muslim, for
traveler, to say his salat in
a plane, ship, car, or a train whether
stationary or moving; it could be performed
any where: in the waiting room, in a public
park, on the side of a road, or at the
When it is not
traveler to say the salat in a
plane or a car or a train in a standing
position, he should say it while he is
If it is not possible for him to find the
direction of the qiblah, he should face the
direction that he most probably thinks to be
the qiblah; if he is unable to prefer one
direction to the other, he should pray in
whatever direction he is facing. If it is
not possible to face the qiblah except for
takbiratul ihram (the opening "Allahu akbar"),
he should at the least say the takbir facing
the direction of qiblah. (See the
question-answer section below.)
permissible to ask the airhostess about the
direction of the qiblah so that she may ask
the pilot about it. If you have confidence
in their information, you can rely on it
even if they are non-Muslims.
Similarly, it is permissible to rely on
scientific instruments for determining the
direction of the qiblah, for example the
compass, if a Muslim is convinced about its
If a Muslim
cannot do wudhu (minor ritual ablution) for
the salat, then he should do tayammum
The length of
day and night differs from place to place.
If the day and the night are clearly known
by the rising of the sun and its setting,
the Muslim should rely on the rising and the
setting of the sun for determining the times
for salat and fasting. This is so even if
that means that the prayers have to be said
more frequently shorter days or that fasting
becomes lengthier shorter nights.
In some places
the sun does not set or does not rise at all
for a number of days or months. As a matter
of precaution Muslims should rely on the
timings of the closest city that has night
and day in a twenty-four hour period. Thus,
they will, pray five salats according to the
times of that closest city with the
intention of qurbat in general [i.e.,
without saying ada (prayer on time) or qadha
(prayer outside its time)].
If it is not
possible for a Muslim to determine the
beginning of true dawn (fajr) or the midday
or sunset for his prayers and fasting, and
he has faith in the timings given by the
observatories, he can rely on the same, even
if the scientists running the observatories
are non-Muslims-as long as you have faith in
their determining true dawn or noon or
traveler, it is obligatory to
say salat in qasr form; that is, he will
recite the noon, afternoon and night prayers
only two cycles (rak'at) [instead of the
normal four rak'at] provided
travels for forty-four
kilometers or more (in both ways), starting
from the last houses of his city in normal
There are detailed and specific rules in the
Manual of Islamic Laws explaining when to
pray qasr and when not to pray qasr while
traveling. (For some rules, see the
questions-answers at the end of this
salat with due attention to its required
conditions is preferable to praying the noon
salat, and is sufficient; that is, if a
person says Friday prayer, he does not have
to say noon prayer.
congregation (jama'at) is preferable to
praying individually. Its preference is
stronger in the dawn, sunset and night
prayers. A noble hadith says: "A salat [in
congregation] behind a learned scholar is
like [praying] a thousand cycles; and behind
a Qurayshi is like [praying] a hundred
cycles." As the number of the worshippers
increases, the preference [and the reward]
* "In normal cases" means other than the
major metropolitan cities where going from one
end to another is considered traveling.
Performing tamam prayer
should be calculated from the point where a
person is considered, according to urf, a
traveler; it is the end of the bounds of the
town, which may be the borough or neighborhood
in some very big cities". Al-Minhaj,
A student, worker or employee studies
or works in an area situated at more than 22 km
from his city. He goes daily to his workplace
and returns to his city, and there is a
possibility that this will continue for a year
or more. What is the ruling in this case with
respect to his prayers and fasts (siyam)?
He should offer complete (tamm)
prayers and observe the fasts. (FM, pp. 400-401)
What if he were to travel
three or four times a week during the year, not
because his job demands traveling, but for other
purposes like sight-seeing and tourism or for
treating a patient, visiting the shrines of the
Imams (a.s.), etc. What is the ruling on his
He should perform complete
prayers and observe the fasts, since, given his
situation he is considered a frequent traveler
according to convention (ëurf). If he were to
travel twice a week and stay five days in his
hometown [then it is obligatory for him to offer
both the short (qasr) and the complete
(prayers); and, in the month of Ramadan, to
combine observance of the fasts in it (Ramadan)
and their qada after it]. (FM, p. 401)
A mukallaf offers
morning prayer in his city and then travels in a
westerly direction. He arrives in a city in
which the dawn has not yet appeared and then
emerges. Or, he offers noon prayer in his city
and then travels by air, arriving in a city
where the sun has not begun to go down (noon),
and only later begins its descent. Or, he offers
the evening prayer in it (city), then travels to
a city where the sun has not yet set, and then
sets. Is he obliged to repeat the prayer in all
these hypothetical situations?
There are two perspectives. It
is a better precaution (to repeat the prayer),
although apparently it is not (obligatory to
repeat it). (MS, p. 464, Q81)
As a result of expansion some cities, which used
to comprise a number of townships, have become
very big ones. Do you consider such cities as
one [physically] or the old demarcations between
its different neighborhoods should be observed?
Say, you set out on a journey heading to some
other destination, from the eastern most point.
The time for prayer was due, while you were
still within its boundaries, that is in the
westernmost point. Do you perform your prayer
tamam (in its entirety) or qasr
(shortened form). Also, when you return to such
a big city and the time for prayer was due,
while you were in its outskirts, do you say your
prayer qasr or tamam? And what is
the ruling on fasting in such a situation?
As explained in
the question, such a city is considered one,
i.e. the rule of different towns is not
applicable. Of course, the yardstick in
calculating the distance is the definition of
Musafir (traveler). If such a city is very big
and it fulfils the definition, when the person
embarks on his journey from his neighbourhood,
though it be inside the city, the rule of
Musafir applies here. Thus, the distance is
calculated from the approaches of the
neighborhood of the Mukkallaf. If the
definition does not apply unless he gets out of
the city, the end of the city should be the
start of calculating the distance from the edge
of tarakhus (the point at the parameter
of a town, when, for instance, adhan
"call for prayer" can be heard).
Question: When should one
say his salat full (tamam) and when should
one say it qasr (two rakat instead of four)?
Is the general perception about a person
being resident of a city sufficient for him
to say his salat fully [in that city]?
The conditions for qasr in traveling have
been mentioned in the Manual of Islamic
Laws. When a person considers residing in a
city for a long time, and in the general
perception it is considered as such, he is
not considered as a traveler (e.g., if he
intends to reside in that city for year and
a half, it will be considered as his
home-town after one month). But if he
intends to stay in that city for a short
while only and is considered, in the general
sense, as a visitor, he should pray qasr.
How can we know the time of
mid-night? Do 00.00 hours the point of
mid-night as it is commonly held by some
Midnight is halfway between sunset and true
dawn. So if the sun sets at 7 p.m. and the
true dawn begins at 4 a.m., then midnight
will be at 11:30 p.m. The criteria for
determining midnight are the timings of
sunset and true dawn, which differ according
to place and season.
How can we say our obligatory
prayers in an aircraft, especially if we do
not know the direction of the qiblah taking
into consideration the instability of the
floor [because the plane is in motion]?
As for the qiblah, it is possible to
identify its direction by asking the captain
or the airhostesses because their answers
usually carry validity and are a source of
assurance. One should therefore act
As for the stability of the floor where
salat is to be performed, that condition
will be waived when it is not possible to
achieve it. However, other conditions of
prayers should, wherever possible, be
observed. Under no circumstance should the
prayer be delayed beyond its appropriate
How should we say our salat in trains and
cars? Is it necessary to do prostration (sajda)
on something or is it not necessary, in that
would bending of the neck be sufficient?
It is obligatory to say salat in
the usual way where possible. So, one should
face the qiblah in all stages of the salat;
if not, at least while saying the opening
takbir. Otherwise the condition of facing
the qiblah will be dropped. Similarly, if it
is possible to do the bowing (ruku') and
prostration (sajdah) normally (e.g., in the
aisle of the bus or the train), those parts
of salat should be done normally. But if it
is not possible, then one should try to bow
normally for ruku' and sajdah [for example,
from a sitting position on the seat or the
berth of the train].
For sajdah, one has to put the forehead on
an item on which sajdah is valid, even if by
lifting that item to the forehead. If bowing
normally is not possible, one should just
indicate by bending the neck [halfway for
ruku and fully for sajdah].
mukallaf said Subh (dawn) prayer in
his home town, he then traveled to a Western
destination. He arrived at a town before dawn.
Then dawn broke.
On a second
assumption, he said Dhuhr (noon)
prayer in his home town, then traveled by air.
He arrived at a town where the sun was yet to
enter into decline [to the West]. Then it
entered into decline.
On a third one,
he said Maghrib (sunset) prayer in his
home town, then traveled arriving at a town
where the sun has not yet set. Then sunset
obligatory on him to repeat his prayers in all
these assumptions? There are two options. As
a matter of ihtiyat, it is obligatory
[that he repeats his prayers]. The second is
that, alal adhhar, it is not obligatory.
mukallaf did not perform his prayer on time,
such as in the case of sunrise or sunset without
him being able to perform Subh, Dhuhr and
Asr (afternoon) prayers. He travelled and
arrived at a town where neither sunrise nor
sunset has taken place. Should he perform his
prayers adaa’ (as if they were performed
at their prescribed times), qadhaa’ (in
lieu), or ma fith thimmah (as if he was
repaying a debt)?
There is more than
one course of action. However, as a matter of
ihtiyat, they should be performed with the
niyyah of ma fith thimmah, meaning in a
more general sense than performing them adaa’
mukallaf, traveling by air, wanted to
perform his prayer aboard the plane. If it was
possible, i.e. fulfilling the conditions of
facing the [direction] of qibla,
stability of position, and others, his prayer is
in order. Conversely, it will not be in order,
as a matter of ihtiyat, especially if he
still has such ample time that he would be able
to perform it fulfilling all conditions, after
he disembarks the plane.
In case, however,
time was pressing, he should perform his prayer
aboard the plane. If he was able to locate the
direction of qibla, he should face that
direction. His prayer would not be in order if
he breaks the condition of direction, unless for
a necessity. In this case, he should move
towards the direction of the qibla
whenever the aeroplane moves [in the opposite
direction]; he should abstain from recitation
during the time of moving. If it was not
possible to set his face to the qibla, he
should take account of the fact that it should
be between right and left. If it was not
possible to ascertain the direction of qibla,
he should do his best to try to identify it and
act according to what he has reached of guess
work. If this was not feasible, he should
perform his prayer facing any direction that
might contain the qibla. As a matter of
ihtiyat, however, he should perform his
prayers once in each of [the] four directions..
This is being so
if he was able to face the qibla,
otherwise saying (takbiratul ihraam) -
Allah is Great [one of the main parts of prayer,
after niyyah] would do. If neither is
possible, the condition regarding facing
qibla ceases to be operative.
However, as a
matter of strong possibility (al aqwa),
it is permissible to board an aeroplane and the
like as a matter of choice before the onset [of
prayer], albeit with the knowledge that he would
be obliged to perform prayer on board, not
fulfilling the two conditions of facing the
qibla and maintaining a stable position.
(75) A person
traveled aboard an aeroplane [craft], whose
speed is equal to that of the earth, heading
towards the West from the East. The craft went
into orbit around the earth for some time. In
such a case, the five prayers should be
performed in every twenty-four hour period with
the niyyah of alqurbal mutlaqah (The
intention for prayer done with a view to seeking
nearness to Allah, i.e. without designating
whether it is adaa’ or qadhaa’).
As for fasting, it should later be performed
If the speed of
the [space craft] was double that of the earth,
the cycle is, naturally, completed in periods of
twelve hours. Is it obligatory on the traveler
to perform Subh prayer at every dawn,
Dhuhr and Asr prayers at every noon
time, and Maghrib and Isha at
As a matter of
ihtiyat luzumi, [one should perform prayers in
the manner suggested by the question, i.e. five
prayers every twelve hours].
If, for example, the space craft orbited the
earth at three-hour intervals or less, evidently
it is not obligatory to perform prayers at every
dawn, noon, and sunset. As a matter of ihtiyat,
one should perform prayers at twenty-four hour
cycles with the niyyah of alqurbal mutlaqah. To
do so, one should take into consideration the
occurrence of Subh prayer between two dawns,
Dhuhr and Asr between a noon and a sunset that
follows it, and Maghrib and Isha between a
sunset and a midnight that follows it.
To sum up, if the
movement of the craft was from the West to East
and its speed was equivalent to that of the
earth, evidently prayers should be performed at
their prescribed times. Similarly, if its speed
was less than that of the earth, or it was much
more than that of the earth, such as the cycle
is completed every three hours, the rules that
should be applied are as discussed in the
(79) If the
mukallaf was in a place where day light goes
for six months on end and so as night, he
should, as a matter of ihtiyat, observe
the changing of day and night in a twenty-four
hour cycle in the nearest town to where he
lives. He could then perform the five prayers
according to the time table of that town with
the niyyah of al qurbal mutlaqah.
As for fasting, he could move to a town where he
could be able to perform fasting, either during
Ramadhan or later. If neither is possible
fidya (redemption) for not fasting should
be in order.
is in a town that has day and night in a
twenty-four hour cycle. The proportion, however,
of day and night is such that day light is
twenty-three hours and night time is one hour,
or vice versa. The rules regarding prayer times
should follow the sequence of day and night.
As for fasting
Ramadhan, it should be performed as best as
he could. Otherwise, it does not become
obligatory. If it was possible to fast in lieu,
it becomes obligatory. If not, fidya for
not fasting becomes due.
Fasting by a
traveler for whom it is obligatory to shorten a
four Rak'ats prayers to two Rak'ats, should not
fast. However, a traveler who offers full
prayers, like, a person who is a traveler by
profession or who goes on a journey for a haraam
purpose, should fast while traveling.
is no harm in traveling during the month of
Ramadhan, but it is Makrooh to travel during the
month to evade fasting. And similarly, it is
Makrooh to travel before the 24th of Ramadhan
unless traveling is undertaken for the purpose
of Hajj or Umrah or for some important work.
1725. If it
is obligatory on a person to observe a
particular fast other than the fasts of
Ramadhan, like, if he has undertaken to fast on
behalf of someone against payment, or if it is
the fast of the third day of I'tekaf, he cannot
travel on that day, and if he is already on
journey then he should make a Niyyat to stay
there for ten days, if possible, and keep the
And if it is an obligatory fast of Nadhr,
traveling on that day is permissible, and it is
not necessary to make an intention of staying
there for ten days. Though, it is better not to
travel unless it is absolutely necessary, and if
he is already on a journey, he should have the
Niyyat to stay there for 10 days.
1726. If a
person makes a vow to observe a Mustahab fast
and does not specify any day for it, he cannot
keep the fast while traveling. However, if he
makes a vow that he will observe fast on a
particular day during a journey, he should
observe that fast during the journey. Also, if
he makes a vow that he will observe a fast on a
particular day, whether he is journeying on that
day or not, he should observe the fasts on that
day even if he travels.
traveler can observe Mustahab fasts in Madinah
for three days with the Niyyat of praying for
the fulfilment of his wish, and as a precaution,
those three days be Wednesday, Thursday and
1728. If a
person does not know that the fast of a traveler
is invalid and observes fast while journeying,
and learns about the rule during the day, his
fast becomes void, but if he does not learn
about the rule till Maghrib, his fast is valid.
1729. If a
person forgets that he is a traveler or forgets
that the fast of a traveler is void, and
observes fast while journeying, is fast is
1730. If a
fasting person travels after Zuhr, he should, as
a precaution, complete his fast. If he travels
before Zuhr and had an intention from the
previous night to do so, he cannot fast on that
day. As a precaution, he cannot fast on that day
even if he had no intention to travel from the
previous night. In both the cases, he cannot
break the fast till he has reached the limit of
Tarakkhus. If he does, he will be liable to give
1731. If a
traveler in the month of Ramadhan, regardless of
whether he was traveling before Fajr, or was
fasting and then undertook the journey, reaches
his hometown before Zuhr or a place where he
intends to stay for ten days, and if has not
committed an act which invalidates a fast, he
should fast on that day. But if he has committed
such an act, it is not obligatory on him to fast
on that day.
1732. If a
traveler reaches his hometown after Zuhr, or a
place where he intends to stay for ten days, he
cannot fast on that day.
1733. It is
Makrooh for a traveler and for a person who
cannot fast owing to some excuse, to have sexual
intercourse or to eat or drink to his fill,
during the day time in Ramadhan.
1706. If a
person did not fast on certain days because of
some excuse and later doubts about the exact
date on which the excuse was over, it will not
be obligatory on him to offer qadha basing his
calculation on the higher number. For example,
if a person travelled before the commencement of
the month of Ramadhan, and now does not remember
whether he returned on the 5th of Ramadhan or on
the 6th, or if he travelled in the last days of
the month of Ramadhan and returned after
Ramadhan, and now does not remember whether he
travelled on the 25th of Ramadhan or on the
26th, in both the cases, he can observe qadha
based on the lesser number of days, that is,
five days. However, the recommended precaution
is that he should offer qadha for the higher
number of days, that is, six days.
someone commutes daily to the place where
they work, study, or go about their
business; the place happens to be over 22
km. away from where they live. What form of
prayer should they perform, and do they have
- The prayer shall be tamam and they should
* Should the journeying be irregular, say
three times a week the year round, and the
nature of business of the person concerned
was not of that which involves travel?
- Such people should say their prayer in
full and the same goes for fasting, because
they fit the description of people who are
“constantly on the move”, or (katheeris-safar).
If, however, such people make the trip twice
a week, they [should combine both, praying
tamam and qasr. So do their fasting, i.e.
they should fast Ramadhan and fast again
shall become of the obligatory fasting of
someone on a day when they
travelled after zawal?
- [They carry on with their fast], i.e.
they are not required to make up for that
they make the journey before zawal, having
intended to do so the night before, can they
- [No, fasting should be observed on that
day]; they should, therefore, break their
fast upon getting to heddet-tarakhus (the
point at the periphery of a town where, for
example, adhan could be heard. This
concerns distances to determine whether
prayer should be said tamam or qasr). They
should fast later to make up for that day.
The same ruling applies to such people as
making the journey without niyyah the night
* Someone returning from a trip arrived
in their hometown after zawal. Do they have
to observe abstinence (imsak) for the rest
of the day?
- Although not obligatory, it is advisable
for them to abstain from food and drink for
the rest of the day. The same applies to
him who arrived before zawal and was not
fasting because of travel.
* If such
people returned to their town of domicile
before zawal and were observing fast, how
should they go about it?
- They should make niyyah of fasting and
abstain from any acts that render fast that
day invalid. They are, therefore, not
required to fast in lieu.
the person who is on a journey?
- If he sets out for a journey after zawaal,
[he should continue with his fast]. Should
he set out before dawn, he should not fast.
A person who
wishes to offer prayers, should make efforts to
ascertain the direction of Qibla, and for that,
he has to either be absolutely sure, or acquire
such information as may amount to certainty,
like testimony of two reliable persons. If that
is not possible, he should form an idea from the
Niche (Mehrab) of the Masjid or from the graves
of the Muslims, or by other ways, and act
accordingly. In fact, if a non-Muslim who can
determine Qibla by scientific method, indicates
Qibla satisfactorily, he can be relied upon.
791. If a
person, who has a mere surmise about Qibla, and
is in a position to have a better idea, he
should not act on that guess work. For example,
if a guest has an idea about the direction of
Qibla on the statement of the owner of the
house, but feels that he can acquire a firmer
knowledge about Qibla by some means, he should
not act on his host's words.
792. If a
person does not possess any means of determining
the direction of Qibla, or in spite of his
efforts, he cannot form an idea about it, it
will be sufficient for him to offer his prayers
facing any direction. And the recommended
precaution is that, if he has sufficient time at
his disposal, he should offer the same prayers 4
times, each time facing every one of the four
a person is sure or guesses that Qibla is on one
of the two directions, he should offer prayers
794. If a
person has to offer prayers facing a few
direction, and wants to offer two prayers like
Zuhr prayers and Asr prayers, which should be
offered one after the other, the recommended
precaution is that he should offer the first
namaz facing those few directions, and then
commence the second prayers.
795. If a
person who is not certain about the direction of
Qibla, wishes to perform acts other than namaz,
which should be done facing the Qibla like,
slaughtering an animal, he should act according
to his surmise about the direction of Qibla ,
and if that does not seem possible, then
performing the act facing any direction will be
Toilet -In case one does not know or cannot/does
not find out the direction etc what r
If your salat was
Qasr (i.e. 2-rakat wajib salat shortened due to
traveling), then you can join the normal salatul
jamaat to offer your 2-rakat qasr salat, but you
should better avoid standing in the first row of
salatul jamaat (because your salat is shorter
than the normal full salat of the jamaat). You
may stand in other rows or at the end of any
If you are offering a 2-rakat qasr salat (such
as zohr, asr or isha) with a 4-rakat full
salatul jamaat, starting from the first rakaat
of the Imam, then after 2nd rakat, you will
finish your salat with salam. Then, in order to
maintain continuity in the salat, it is better
if you stand up and offer another 2-rakat wajib
salat (e.g. with niyyat of your qaza or qaza of
your dead relative) by joining the Imam in the
next ruku, and following the usual rule of
* What if he
travels after dawn?
- In this
case, [fasting is not in order, irrespective
of whether or not it was clear in his mind
that(76) The nature of business or job of
a mukallaf is such that he should
fast during traveling time. Dawn broke while
he is still in his home town. He decided to
travel by air with the intention of fasting.
If he arrives at an other town while the
dawn has not yet broken, is it permissible
for him to eat and drink and do similar
Evidently, it is
(77) During the
month of Ramadhan, a traveler set on a
journey from his home town ba’daz zawaal
(after the sun disc has declined toward the
West). He arrived at another town where the sun
was still in a position before zawaal. Is
it obligatory on him to abstain from eating and
drinking, and thus complete his fasting?
As a matter of
ihtiyat, it is the case.
(78) The nature
of business or job of a mukallaf is such
that he should fast during traveling time. He
travelled from his home town where he sighted
the new moon of Ramadhan, and arrived at
another destination where no sighting has taken
place. This is because the two destinations are
located in two different horizons. It is not
obligatory on him to fast for that day.
The new moon of
Shawwal was sighted in a town and Eid
(festivities marking the end of the fasting
season) was celebrated. Then the mukallaf
made a journey to another town, where the moon
has not yet been sighted for difference of their
horizons. As a matter of ihtiyat,
abstaining from eating and drinking should be
maintained for the rest of that day. Fasting c71)
During Ramadhan, a fasting person
travelled by air to a destination in the West.
He did not break his fast in his place of
residence. He then arrived at a place where the
sun has not yet set. Is it obligatory on him to
abstain from eating and drinking till the time
of sun set?
Apparently, it is
not obligatory, although abstaining is advisable
as a matter of ihtiyat. should be
performed at later date.
What is the ruling for a person who
travels after noon (zuhr) during the
month of Ramadan while fasting?
[He should complete his fast] and
there is no qada on him. (FM, p. 401) ???
he intended to travel the evening before]. He
should, therefore, do qadha.
MISCELLANEOUS TRAVEL RULES
If a father says to his child: I
know that there is no danger involved in your
trip, my child, but your separation from me,
your absence and the distance are really hard
for me to bear and cause me suffering; it is for
this reason that I forbid you to travel.
Follow up: Before I respond, let me ask
you this question. If the child obeys his father
and does not travel, will the cancellation of
such a trip hurt him in any way?
Response: Absolutely not. The child will
not suffer in any way, but he will be prevented
from fulfilling his wish.
this case then, it is not permissible for him to
go on the trip, as long as such travel causes
his father suffering. (FM, pp. 435-36)
Question: If a Muslim is sure of his
father’s displeasure —although he has not heard
him say no— in his traveling abroad, is it
permissible for him to travel, should he know
that the journey is good for him?
If being kind towards the father —in the context
mentioned earlier in the answer to a previous
question— demands that the son should be close
to him, or that the father will be in distress
out of his concern for the son, he should not
embark on traveling as long as he will not be
in loss; otherwise, it is not necessary for him
to refrain [from traveling].
It is not
permissible for the child to go against the
express wish of his parents, for what makes them
take such a stand is their concern for the
wellbeing of their child.
* Suppose the
child wanted to travel, and the parents were
sure that no harm would befall their child, yet
the parents could not contemplate the idea of
their child being away from them; it could upset
them. So, they objected to their child’s making
such a journey. Can the child still make the
- Let me put it this way: If the child was not
going to suffer adversely from traveling, and
his insistence on making the trip could result
in upsetting his parents, he must not go away.
Boundaries of a city
Q48: There are extended cities with
adjoining borders and sides which, in the past,
were reckoned to be separate cities, but after
prosperous growth, became one city. Do you
regard them as one or several cities?
A person travels from the farthest point in the
East (of the city) with the intention of
traveling to another place, and the time for
prayer comes when he is at the farthest westerly
point (of the city). He wishes to pray. Should
he pray qasr or does he pray complete?
And similarly, if he returns from a journey to
the outskirts (of the city), and the time for
prayer comes, does he pray qasr, or complete?
What about the person who is fasting, and leaves
(the city) or returns to it?
A: The hypothetical cities all count
as one. The rulings of separate cities does not
actually apply to this case. True, the rule with
respect to computing the distance is from the
point at which the term ìtravelerî (musafir)
becomes applied to someone. Were this city truly
one of the larger cities and the term (ìtravelerî)
is applied upon the exit of a person from his
zone or area of residence, even if it is deemed
to be inside the city, then the ruling of
ìtravelerî applies on him.
And the distance would be computed from this
point, which is considered hadd al-tarakhkhus
with respect to that person. If the term (ìtravelerî)
does not apply to him unless he leaves the
(larger) city, then the last region of the city
is to be counted as the beginning for distance
measurement with respect to him. God knows best.
(MMS, p. 32, Q64)
QASR SALAT: SHORTENED SALAT
FOR A TRAVELER
Abul Qasim Rizvi, Panjtan Ctr, Melbourne 15
What is a Qasr
Salat ? When a person travels out from his
hometown (or normal town of residence) and if
the required conditions are met, then it is
wajib for the traveler to offer all his daily
4-rakat wajib salat (Zohr, Asr and Isha) as a
2-rakat salat. Such a salat is called qasr
(shortened) salat. The other two wajib salat (Fajr
and Maghrib) are not shortened for a traveler.
For consideration of Qasr Salat, a hometown is a
place, where the person usually resides (or used
to reside) and considers it as his hometown (watan).
There can be more than one hometown for a
person. For example, you may decide to consider
both Melbourne and Karachi as your hometowns
(Melbourne as your present hometown and Karachi
as your ancestral hometown where you had spent a
great part of your life). The decision is yours
and should be based on traditional meaning of
TO BE MET FOR QASR SALAT
A 4-rakat wajib salat will become a 2-rakat
wajib salat for a traveler only if all the
following conditions are met.
(1) Traveling Distance: The distance
to be travelled during journey must be 44 km
or more (one way journey or round trip
journey) counted from the city boundary or
the last house of the city.
*For round trip journey, the distance can be
22 km going out and 22 km returning, or some
other combination (such as 20km and 24km),
as long as the total journey is at least 44
km (whether returning on the same day or
(2) Limit of Departure (Hadde
Tarakhus): After leaving the city boundary,
the traveler must reach a point, called
Hadde Tarakhus, at which he can start
offering his Qasr Salat if he wishes. This
point is defined as a place where the
traveler is not able to see the people of
*But if a traveler is not in his hometown,
and travels out, the rule of Tarakhus will
not apply to him. His salat will be Qasr as
he travels from his place of residence.
*A traveler, who is returning to his
hometown, will continue praying Qasr till he
enters the hometown.
* If a traveler doubts at a point whether or
not he has reached the point of Tarakhus, he
should offer full salat at that point.
(3) Intention: Before starting the
journey, the traveler must have a firm
intention of traveling 44 km or more, and he
must not change this intention while on his
way before covering this distance.
*If the traveler changes his mind on his
way, or remains undecided before covering a
distance of 22 km, he should offer full
salat (not Qasr) but while returning, if
distance to be covered is 44 km or more, his
salat will be qasr because it is an intended
(4) Length of Stay: After reaching a
destination, the salat will be qasr during
the stay if the intention to stay there is
less than 10 days.
*How to count 10 days ? This will depend
upon when you arrive at your destination.
If you arrive near Fajr time, 10 days will
be from sunrise of 1st day to sunset of 10th
If you arrive near Zohr time, 10 days will
be from zohr of 1st day to zohr of 11th day.
If you arrive near Maghrib time or at night,
10 days will be from 1st night to 11th
Thus you should count full 10 daylight days
after your arrival.
* A person who intends to stay for 10 days
or more at a place will offer full salat at
that place, but he will offer Qasr salat
during his journey till he reaches that
(5) Purpose of Journey: The journey
must not be haram (unlawful) or for haram
*If the journey is haram or for haram
purpose, one should offer full salat, for
example, the journey is to attend a haram
musical function, or to give a false
* If journey by a son causes displeasure to
his parents, or a journey by a wife is
without husband’s permission, which also
causes displeasure to him, then such a
journey is haram, and salat will be full on
such journey. But if such journey is to
perform a wajib act (such as Hajj), then it
is not haram.
*If the traveling is for haram purpose, then
salat will be full when going out on such
journey, but when returning, salat will be
Qasr if other conditions are met (such as
return journey is 44 km or more).
(6) Profession: Traveling should not
be the profession or job of the traveler.
*If traveler’s profession is such that it is
the means of his earnings (e.g. pilot,
sailors, train or bus drivers etc), he will
pray full salat. Such people will pray full
salat even if they travel for their personal
work, like transporting their own families.
*Those who live at one place and work or
study at another place, commuting everyday,
or every other day, like students or
businessmen, will also pray full salat.
*If a person, whose profession is traveling,
travels for another purpose, like Hajj, he
should offer Qasr salat, except when he is a
known frequent traveler.
*A traveler, whose profession for a part of
the year is traveling, like a driver who
works only in winter, should offer full
salat during those journeys.
*A person, who is a nomad, who roams about
temporarily at different places or who tours
different cities, and has not adopted a
homeland for himself, should offer full
salat. But if he travels for Hajj or Ziyarat,
his salat will be Qasr.
If a traveler knew
that his salat was Qasr, but he offered full
salat by mistake or intentionally, then he must
offer his salat again as Qasr salat, or as qaza
Qasr salat if the time has passed.
If a traveler does not know that he should offer
Qasr salat, and he offers full salat, then his
salat is OK.
Qaza of a Qasr salat is offered as qaza Qasr
salat and qaza of a full salat is offered as
qaza full salat, whether it is offered during
traveling or not.
If a traveler intends to stay at a place for
nine days or less, (thus offering Qasr salat),
and after spending 9 days or less, he decides to
extend his stay for further 9 days or less, he
should offer Qasr salat, and so on, till 30
days, but he will start full salat from 31th day
(even if he extends further for any number of
If a traveler stays at a place unexpectedly for
30 days, like, if he remains undecided
throughout those 30 days whether he should stay
or not, he should start offering full salat
after 30 days, even if it be for a short period.
If a traveler intends to stay at a place for 10
days or more (thus requiring him to offer full
salat), and then after arrival, he changes his
mind to stay for 9 days or less, then he can
offer Qasr salat only if he had not offered any
4-rakat wajib salat since arrival. But if he has
offered any 4-salat wajib rakat (or fasted for
one day) since arrival, then he will offer full
OPTION OF QASR
OR FULL SALAT IN CERTAIN PLACES
If you are
traveling and other conditions of traveling are
met, you can offer full salat or Qasr salat in
the following four places.
(1) Masjidul Haram (Holy Kaaba) and whole
city of Mecca
(2) Masjidun Nabi (Holy Prophet Mosque)
and whole city of Madina
(3) Masjide Kufa and whole city of Kufa
(4) Shrine of Imam Hussain AS Karbala
(i.e. 25 arm length all around the sacred grave)
TRAVELING DURING MONTH OF RAMADAN
Lecture #9 Maulana Abul Qasim Rizvi, Panjtan Ctr,
the month of Ramadan is haram by a traveler
(who fulfils the required conditions of
If a traveler did not know that fasting was
not allowed for a traveler in Ramadan, and
he fasted, and he came to know about this
rule after completion of fasting, then his
fast is valid. But if he came to know about
this rule during that fasting, then his fast
is invalid, and he has to offer qaza of that
fast after Ramadan.
If the traveler forgot the rule that fasting
was not allowed for a traveler in Ramadan,
and he fasted, then his fast is invalid.
Traveling is makrooh (undesirable) before
24th of Ramadan, but it is not makrooh if
the traveling is intended to perform Umrah
or for Hajj.
If you start your journey after zawal time
(Islamic mid-day) in Ramadan, then it is
wajib to complete fasting for that day.
If you start your journey before zawal time
in Ramadan, then it is wajib to start fast
on that day, and then your fast will
automatically break after you have reached
Hadde Tarakhus (Limit of Departure).
If you were traveling, and you returned to
your home (or arrive at a place where you
have to stay for 10 days or more) after
zawal time in Ramadan, then you can not fast
on that day, but it is mustahab to respect
fasting on that day.
If you were traveling, and you returned to
your home (or arrive at a place where you
have to stay for 10 days or more) before
zawal time in Ramadan, then it is wajib to
keep fast for that day provided you have not
done anything which breaks fast. But if you
have done anything which breaks fast, then
you can not fast on that day, and will do
qaza fast after Ramadan.
If you are a traveler during any month, and
stay somewhere for less than 10 days, then
you can not keep even mustahab fast or qaza
fast of previous Ramadan during your stay..
If you are a traveler, and stay somewhere
for less than 10 days, then you can keep a
Mustahab fast (e.g. 17th Rabiul Awwal)
during such stay, only if you had made a
nazr (vow) that you will keep that specific
mustahab fast on that day.
If you are a traveler in Madina, it is
allowed to fast in Madina for three
consecutive days ( better recommended to
fast on Wednesday, Thursday and Friday) for
your hajaat (fulfillment of your wishes)
there, even if your stay is shorter than 10