SHAKKIYATE NAMAZ (DOUBTS IN SALAAT)  – SIMPLIFIED 

There are 22 kinds of doubts, classified into 3 groups, that can possibly arise while praying Salaat: 

1.   7 doubts that invalidate the Salaat, where Salaat should be performed again.

2.   6 doubts that do not affect the validity of the Salaat and should be disregarded.

3.   9 doubts that do not invalidate Salaat, but corrective action is required.

 

1. DOUBTS IN THE NUMBER OF RAK’ATS WHICH MAKE

WAJIB SALAAT INVALID.

 

1.      In a Salaat of two rak’ats.

2.      In a Salaat of three rak’ats.

In a Salaat of 4 rak’ats

3.      Whether one has performed one rak’at or more.

4.      Before going to the second sajdah as to whether one has performed 2 rak’ats or more.

5.      Doubt between 2 and 5 rak’ats or between 2 and more than 5 rak’ats.

6.      Doubt between 3 and 6 rak’ats or between 3 and more than 6 rak’ats.

7.      Doubt between 4 and 6 rak’ats or between 4 and more than 6 rak’ats.

 

2. DOUBTS THAT DO NOT AFFECT THE VALIDITY OF THE SALAAT

AND SHOULD BE DISREGARDED

 

1.      Doubt about an act the performance time for which has already passed.

2.      Doubt occurring after the Salaam of prayers. But if both sides of the doubt lead to invalidity of the Salat, for example, if he doubts in a 4 rak’ats Salaat whether he has performed 3 or 5 rak’ats, his prayer would be invalid.

3.      Doubt after the time of prayers has already passed.

4.      Doubts of a person who is always in a state of doubt about actions in Salaat.

5.      Doubts in the Congregational Prayer (Salaatul Jama’ah).

6.      Doubts in Mustahab prayers and the prayers of Ihtiyat.

 

3. DOUBTS WHICH DO NOT INVALIDATE SALAAT,

BUT REQUIRE CORRECTIVE ACTION

 

·         In a 4 rak’ats wajib Salaat (Zuhr/Asr/Isha), if any doubt arises about the number of rak’ats, one should pause to think, and if he/she arrives at any decision or probability, he/she should act accordingly.  If doubt persists, the Salaat can be validated, in some cases, by taking necessary corrective action, details of which are given in the Table on the REVERSE PAGE. 

 

NOTE: 1]        During the daily wajib Salaat  of 2 or 3 rak’ats (Fajr/Maghrib), whenever any doubt arises about the number of rak’ats (and even if after trying to remember, the doubt still persists) the Salaat  becomes invalid.  It should be prayed again.

 

2]        If, during Salaat, one cannot remember how many rak’ats he has prayed, his Salaat becomes invalid.  He should pray all over again.

 

METHOD OF PRAYING SALAATUL IHTIYAT

 

Niyyah: I am praying Salaatul Ihtiyat one (or two) rak’ats wajib qurbatan ilallah

 

Immediately after completing the Salaat (in which the doubt had occurred and which requires Salaatul Ihtiyat to be performed for its completion and validation), without turning away from Qiblah or doing anything which invalidates Salat, stand up and make niyyah (intention) in your mind (without uttering).  If the Salaatul Ihtiyat is to be performed in a sitting position, then remain seated and make niyyah in your mind. 

 

Say Takbiratul Ehram.  Recite Bismillahr-Rahmanir-Rahim and recite only Surah Al-Hamd (both in low whisper). Perform ruku’u and the two sajdah.  If only one rak’at of Salatul Ihtiyat is to be performed, recite Tashahhud and Salaam of the prayers after the two sajdah and complete the Salaat.  If it is obligatory to perform two rak’ats, then after the two sajdah, perform another rak’at like the first one, and then complete with Tashahhud and Salaam. 

 

Note:   Salatul Ihtiyat does not have a second Surah or Qunuut.

 

Caution:         If any act is performed which invalidates the prayer before starting Salaatul Ihtiyat, for example, turning away from Qiblah, then the prayer should be repeated.

 

METHOD OF OFFERING SAJDATUS SAHV (SAJDAH FOR A MISTAKE)

 

Niyyah: I am performing two Sajdatus Sahv wajib qurbatan ilallah

Immediately after completing the Salaat (which requires performance of two Sajdatus Sahv for its completion and validation), make niyyah (intention) in your mind (without uttering) of performing two Sajdatus Sahv.

 

Perform Sajdah and recite “Bismillahi Wa Billah Assalamu ‘Alayka Ayyuhan Nabiyyu Wa Rahmatullahi Wa Barakatuh”.  Then sit up and perform another Sajdah reciting the above mentioned Zikr.  After performing the second Sajdah sit up again and recite Tashahhud and say Assalamu ‘Alaykum Wa Rahmatullahi Wa Barakatuh.

 

Caution:         If a person does not perform two Sajdatus Sahv after the Salaam of prayer intentionally, he commits a sin, and it is obligatory upon him to perform it as early as possible.  And if he forgets to perform it, he should perform it immediately when he remembers. It is, however, not necessary for him to repeat the prayers.

Prayer of Ehtiyat/Sajadah-e-Sahv  ( www.playandlearn.org )

A person for whom it is obligatory to offer Prayer of Ehtiyat should make the intention of such prayer immediately after Salam of prayers, without looking away from the Qibla or doing anything which invalidates the Prayers, do the Takbir and recite Surah al-Hamd and then perform the Ruuku, the two Sajdahs, Tashahhud and Salam. In case, however, it is obligatory for him to perform two units of Prayer of Ehtiyat, he should perform after the two Sajdahs, another unit like the first one and then recite Tashahhud and Salam.

Note: In Prayer of Ehtiyat there is no second surah or qonoot.

 

SAJDATUS SAHV   also see http://www.islamic-laws.com/sajda_sahv.htm

After the Salam of the prayer one should offer two sajdatus sahv for everyone of the following things:
  1. One has talked by mistake in Prayer
  2. One has left one Sajdahs by mistake
  3. One has forgotten Tashahhud by mistake
  4. One has recited Salam at the wrong place by mistake
  5. Has added or omitted by mistake any such thing which is not Rukn; or
  6. In the 4 Unit Prayer, after the second Sajdah one doubts whether it was the 4th or 5th unit.
How to do Sajdatus Sahv

Soon after finishing the Prayer, one immediately makes the intention and goes to Sajdah and recite " Bismillahe wa billahe Assalaamu alaika aiyuhan-Nabiyyu wa rahmatullahe wa barakatuh", and then one sits and perform the other Sajdah in the same way as the first one and sits and recite Tashahhud and Salam. (It is enough to say "Assalamu alaykum wa Rahmatullahe wa barakatuh for Salam.)

Note: If the Prayer of Ehtiyat is also to be performed it must be performed before Sajdatus Sahv.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I am indeed thankful to: Ma’alim Mohamedhussein Kermalli Br. Hasnayn Karim  Br. Mohamedraza Janmohammed

for their very useful contribution in the compiling of this Paper

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DOUBTS IN THE NUMBER OF RAK’ATS IN SALAAT WHICH CAN BE VALIDATED

 

 

 

NINE TYPES

OF DOUBTS

IF THE DOUBT ARISES IN THE NUMBER

OF RAK’ATS

WHETHER IT IS

IF THE DOUBT ARISES WHIILE IN THE STATE OF QIYAM

(STANDING)

IF THE DOUBT ARISES WHILE IN THE STATE OF RUKU

(BENDING)

IF THE DOUBT ARISES AFTER

RUKU

(BENDING)

IF THE DOUBT ARISES WHILE IN THE STATE OF SAJDAH

(PROSTRATION)

 

IF THE DOUBT ARISES AFTER  TWO SAJDAHS

(PROSTRATION)

 

 

METHOD ON HOW THE SALAAT CAN BE VALIDATED

 

            

1

 

2nd or 3rd

 

The Salaat

becomes invalid

 

The Salaat

becomes invalid

 

The Salaat

becomes invalid

 

The Salaat

becomes invalid

 

The Salaat

remains valid

Ø       Consider it as 3rd rak’at,

Ø       Stand up and pray the 4th rak’at. 

Ø       After Salaat, pray 1 rak’at Salaatul Ihtiyat standing.

 

 

2

 

2nd, 3rd or 4th

 

The Salaat

becomes invalid

 

The Salaat

becomes invalid

 

The Salaat

becomes invalid

 

The Salaat

becomes invalid

 

The Salaat

remains valid

Ø       Consider it as 4th rak’at and complete the Salaat. 

Ø       After Salaat, pray 2 rak’ats Salaatul Ihtiyat standing

Ø        AND also 2 rk’ats Salaatul Ihtiyat sitting.

 

3

 

2nd or 4th

 

The Salaat

becomes invalid

 

The Salaat

becomes invalid

 

The Salaat

becomes invalid

 

The Salaat

becomes invalid

 

The Salaat

remains valid

Ø       Consider it as 4th rak’at and complete the Salaat.  After Salaat, pray 2 rak’ats Salaatul Ihtiyat standing.

 

4

 

3rd or 4th

 

The Salaat

remains valid

 

The Salaat

remains valid

 

The Salaat

remains valid

 

The Salaat

remains valid

 

The Salaat

remains valid

Ø       Consider it as 4th rak’at and

complete the Salaat. 

Ø       After Salaat, pray 1 rak’at Salaatul Ihtiyat standing OR 2 rak’ats sitting.

 

 

5 & 6

 

 

4th or 5th

 

 

 

(A) The Salaat remains valid

 

 

 

The Salaat

becomes invalid

 

 

 

The Salaat

becomes invalid

 

 

 

The Salaat

becomes invalid

 

 

 

(B) The Salaat remains valid

(A)

Consider it as 5th rak’at, sit down to reduce it to 4th rak’at, and  complete the prayer

Ø       After Salaat, pray 1 rak’at Salaatul Ihtiyat                             standing

Ø       OR 2 rak’ats  sitting

Ø       As a recommended precaution, also offer two Sajdatus Sahv for the additional qiyam.

(B)

Ø       Consider it as 4th rak’at and complete the       Salaat

Ø       > Then  perform 2 Sajdatus Sahv.

 

 

7

 

 

3rd or 5th

 

The Salaat

remains valid

 

The Salaat

becomes invalid

 

The Salaat

becomes invalid

 

The Salaat

becomes invalid

 

The Salaat

becomes invalid

Ø       Consider it as 5th rak’at, sit down to reduce it to 4th rak’at, and complete the Salaat

Ø       After Salaat, pray 2 rak’ats Salaatul Ihtiyat standing

Ø       As a recommended precaution, also offer two Sajdatus Sahv for the additional qiyam.

 

 

 

8

 

 

3rd, 4th or 5th

 

 

The Salaat

remains valid

 

 

The Salaat

becomes invalid

 

 

The Salaat

becomes invalid

 

 

The Salaat

becomes invalid

 

 

The Salaat

becomes invalid

Ø       Consider it as 5th rak’at, sit down to reduce it to 4th rak’at, and complete the Salaat

Ø       After Salaat, pray 2 rak’ats Salaatul Ihtiyat standing AND 2 rak’ats sitting

Ø       As a recommended precaution, also offer two Sajdatus Sahv for the additional qiyam.

 

 

9

 

 

5th or 6th

 

 

The Salaat

remains valid

 

 

The Salaat

becomes invalid

 

 

The Salaat

becomes invalid

 

 

The Salaat

becomes invalid

 

 

The Salaat

becomes invalid

Ø       Consider it as 5th rak’at, sit down to reduce it to 4th rak’at, and complete the Salaat

Ø       After Salaat, perform 2 Sajdatus Sahv

Ø       As a recommended precaution, also offer two Sajdatus Sahv for the additional qiyam.

NOTE: According to Ayatullah Al-Sistani Dama Dhilluhu, doubts arising during second sajdah are considered as “after 2nd sajdah”. (Al-Fiqh Muyassarah, p. 95)

Sourse Tebyan.net   http://www.tebyan.net/index.aspx?pid=31159&BookID=20747&PageIndex=0&Language=3

Doubts In Connection With Prayers

There are 23 kinds of doubts that may arise during the Prayers which are as follows:

- 8 Doubts that if occurred nullify the Salat 6 Doubts are such that if occurred may be ignored, and not nullify the Salat 9 Doubts that if occurred may not nullify the Salat but do require the remedial procedure as will be described later and each case carried out. It is not necessary to recite the Salat again.

 

Doubts Which Make Prayer Void.

Doubts about the units performed in prayers consisting of 2 units like Fajr prayers or Qasr prayer.

Doubts about the units performed in prayers consisting of 3 units.

Doubts about the units performed in prayers consisting of 4 units before completion of 2 units..

Doubt in a 4 unit prayers before finishing the Zikr of the second Prostration as to whether he has performed 2 units or more.

Doubt in a 4 unit prayer between 2 and 5 units or between 2 and more than 5 units.

Doubt in a 4 unit prayer between 3 and 6 units or between 3 and more than 6 units.

Doubt in a 4 unit prayer between 4 and 6 units or between 4 and more than 6 units.

Doubt in a 4 unit prayer about the number of units already performed.

If a person entertains one of those doubts in his mind which make his prayer void it is better for him not to break the prayers, rather finish his prayers and offer the prayers again.

Doubts Which May be Ignored.

 

Doubt about the act after the time has already passed. e.g. during ruku a person doubts as to whether he has recited Sura al-Hamd or while in sajda to doubt having missed ruku.

Doubt after having finished the prayer.

Doubt after the time of prayer has already passed. e.g. doubt at the time of Zohr prayer whether Fajr prayer was offered or not.

Doubt of a person, who doubts too much.

Doubt by the Imam about the number of units when the ma'mum (follower) is aware of their number and vice versa.

Doubt created in recommended and precautionary prayers.

 

Doubts Which are Sound

(that do not nullify Prayers but require remedial procedure)

If a person is in doubt about the numbers of units performed by him in connection with the 4 unit prayers in 9 situations, he should, on the basis of recommended precaution, think over the matter immediately and if he becomes certain or forms an opinion about one side he should adopt that side and finish the prayers accordingly and act according to the following rules:

 

If after performing both sajdahs one doubts whether one has performed 2 units or 3, he should regard it as a 3rd unit and do the 4th unit and finish the prayer and on the basis of obligatory precaution ( Ihteyat-e-Wajib)offer 1 unit Precautionary Prayer (Salat-e-Ehtiyat) by standing.

If after performing both sajdahs one doubts whether one has performed 2 or 4 units, he should regard it as a 4th unit and finish the prayer and offer 2 unit Precautionary Prayer (Salat-e-Ehtiyat) by standing .

If after performing both sajdahs one doubts whether one has performed 2, 3 or 4 units, he should regard it as a 4th unit and finish the prayer and offer 2 unit Precautionary Prayer (Salat-e-Ehtiyat) by standing and two units by sitting.

If after performing both sajdahs one doubts whether one has performed 4 or 5 units, he should regard it as a 4th unit and finish the prayer on this basis. After finishing the prayers he should also perform 2 Forgotten Prostration's (Sajdatus Sahv).

In case, however a person entertains any one of the above mentioned four doubts after the first prostration or before finishing the recital of the first prostration his prayers would be void and be done again.

During the course of Prayer if a person doubts, whether he has performed 3 or 4 units, he should assume it as a 4th unit and finish his prayers. He should then offer 1 unit by standing or 2 units by sitting of Salat-e-Ehtiyat.

If a person doubts during Qiyam (before the Rukoo)as to whether he has offered 4 or 5 units he should sit down at once and finish the prayers and offer 1 unit by standing or 2 units by sitting of Salat-e-Ehtiyat.

If a person doubts while in Qiyam (Before the Rukoo) as to whether he has performed 3rd or 5th unit he should sit down at once and finish the prayers and offer 2 unit by standing of Salat-e-Ehtiyat.

If a person doubts while in Qiyam (Before the Rukoo) as to whether he has performed 3rd, 4th or 5th unit he should sit down at once and finish the prayers and offer 2 unit by standing and 2 units by sitting of Salat-e-Ehtiyat.

If a person doubts while in Qiyam (Before the Rukoo) as to whether he has performed 5 or 6 units he should sit down at once and finish the prayers and offer 2 Sajdatus Sahv.

In the last four cases one should on the basis of obligatory precaution, also perform two Sajdatus Sahv on account of undue Qiyam.