This document is a collection of relevant Masail & Q& A from the 4 books Islamic laws , Jurisprudence made easy , Contemporary legal rulings & Current Legal Issues
Objective is to make one complete document which can guide travelers of all Travel related Issues .Pl help in getting this done
Qasr: A shortened form of prayer: A concession for a musafir (Traveller) to perform a two raka'a prayer instead of the full four raka'a one (see tamam).
hadd al-tarakhkhus: point away from the boundary of a city whose inhabitants cannot be seen. Some jurists consider it to be a point from where the city's call to prayers (adhan) cannot be heard. However, Ayatollah Seestani objects to this latter definition. (MS, p. 297, Q918)
Islamic Laws - Prayers of a traveller (Musafir)
A traveller should reduce the Rak'ats in Zuhr, Asr and Isha prayers, that is, he should perform two Rak'ats instead of four, subject to the following eight conditions:
The first condition is that his journey is not less than 8 farsakh . A farsakh in shariah is a little less than 51/2 kilometres. (When converted into miles, 8 farsakh is equal to 28 miles approximately).
1281. If the total of outward journey and return journey is 8 farsakh, even if the single journey either way does not equal 4 farsakh, he should shorten his prayers. Therefore, if his outward journey is 3 farsakh, and his return is 5 farsakh, or vice versa, he should offer shortened prayers, that is, of two Rak'ats.
1282. If the total of outward and return journey is just 8 farsakh, the traveller should shorten his prayers, even if he does not return on the same day or night. However, as a precaution, he should also offer complete prayers.
1283. If a brief journey is less than 8 farsakh or if a person does not know whether or not his journey is 8 farsakh, he should not shorten his prayers. If he doubts whether or not his journey is 8 farsakh, it is not necessary for him to investigate, he should offer complete prayers.
1284. If an 'Adil or a reliable person tells a traveller that the distance covered in his journey equals 8 farsakh, he should shorten his prayers, if he feels satisfied.
1285. If a person believed that his journey equalled 8 farsakh, and he shortened his prayers, and learnt later that it was not 8 farsakh, he should offer four Rak'ats of prayers, and if the time for the prayers has lapsed, he should perform its qadha.
1286. If a person is sure that his journey is not of 8 farsakh, or if he doubts whether or not it is of 8 farsakh , if he realises on his way that the distance of his journey had been 8 farsakh, he should offer shortened prayers, even if very little remains of his journey. If he has offered complete prayers, he should offer it again in the shortened form, but if the times of namaz has lapsed, there is no qadha for it.
1287. If a person frequents between two places which are less than 4 farsakh apart, he should offer complete prayers, even if the total distance covered by him may add up to 8 farsakh.
1288. If two roads lead to a place, one of them less than 8 farsakh away, and the other 8 farsakh or more, the traveller will offer shortened prayers if he travels by the road which is 8 farsakh away, and complete prayers if he travels by the road which is less than 8 farsakh away.
1289. The beginning of 8 farsakh should be calculated from a point beyond which he will be deemed a traveller, and this point is represented by the last boundary of a city. In certain very big cities, it would be probably reckoned from the end of locality.
second condition is that the traveller should intend
at the time of the commencement of the journey, to cover a
distance of 8 farsakh. If he travels up to a point which is less
than 8 farsakh away, and after reaching there decides to go
further, and the two distances, when combined total 8 farsakh,
he should offer full prayers.
1290. A person who does not know how many farsakh his journey would be, like, if he travels in search of something not knowing how far he will have to go, should offer full prayers. But, if the return journey to his home, or up to a place where he intends staying for 10 days, is 8 farsakh or more, he should offer shortened prayers. Moreover, if he makes a niyyat, during the journey, that he will travel 4 farsakh and again return covering 4 farsakh, he should shorten his prayers.
1291. A traveller should offer shortened prayers only when he is firmly determined to travel 8 farsakh. Hence, if a person goes outside the city thinking that he would cover 8 farsakh if he finds a companion, he will offer shortened prayers only if he is sure that he will find a companion. And if he is not sure to find one, he should pray full.
1292. A person who intends to travel 8 farsakh, will pray shortened prayers even if he covers little distance every day. But he will do this when he has reached the point beyond which travelling begins, as explained in rule no.
1327. However, if his journey is at such a slow pace, that it cannot be considered a journey, then, as per obligatory precaution, he should pray both, full and shortened prayers.
1293. If a person who is under the control of another person while on a journey, like, a servant travelling with his master, knows that his journey is 8 farsakh, he should offer shortened prayers. But if he does not know, he should offer full prayers, and it is not necessary for him to inquire.
1294. If a person, who is under the control of another person while on a journey, knows or thinks that he will get separated from that person before reaching 4 farsakh, he should offer full prayers.
1295. If a person who is under the control of another person while on a journey, feels that he would separate from that person before reaching 4 farsakh, he should offer full prayers. But if he feels sure that he would not separate, at the same time having a faint presentiment that an impediment might occur in the journey, he should offer shortened prayers.
The third condition is that the traveller should not change his mind while on his way. If he changes his mind, or is undecided before covering 4 farsakh, he should offer full prayers.
1296. If after covering a distance which would add up to make 8 farsakh on return, the traveller abandons the journey, and if he decides to remain at that place, or to return after 10 days, or is undecided about returning or staying there, he should offer full prayers.
1297. If a person abandons the journey after reaching a distance which would add up to make 8 farsakh on return, and decides to return, he should offer shortened prayers even if he wants to stay there for less than 10 days.
1298. If a person commences his journey to go to a place which is at a distance of 8 farsakh, and after covering a part of the journey, decides to go elsewhere, and the distance between the place from where he started his journey, up to the new place, is 8 farsakh, he should shorten his prayers.
1299. If a person, before reaching 8 farsakh, becomes undecided about proceeding further, and if he stops his journey, and later decides to proceed to complete the intended journey, he should offer shortened prayers till the end of his journey.
1300. If a person, before covering 8 farsakh, becomes undecided about proceeding further, and in the same state of indecision continues travelling, till he decides to go further for 8 farsakh, or for a distance which would add up to make 8 farsakh on return, he should pray shortened prayers till the end, regardless of whether he wants to return the same day or night, or stay there for less than 10 days.
1301. If before covering a distance of 8 farsakh a, traveller becomes undecided whether he should complete the journey or not, and decides later to do so, if his remaining journey is less than 8 farsakh, he should offer full prayers. But if the distance covered before indecision and the remaining distance, both add up to 8 farsakh, he will offer shortened prayers.
The fourth condition is that the traveller does not intend to pass through his home town and stay there, or to stay at some place for 10 days or more, before he reaches a distance of 8 farsakh. Hence a person, who intends to pass through his home town and stay there, or to stay at a place for 10 days, before he reaches of 8 farsakh, he should offer full prayers.
1302. A person, who does not know whether or not he will pass through his home town and stay there, before reaching 8 farsakh, or through a place where he will stay for 10 days, should offer full prayers.
1303. A person who wishes to pass through his home town and stay there, before he reaches 8 farsakh, or to stay at a place for 10 days, or if he is undecided about it, should offer complete prayers even if he later abandons the idea of passing through his home town, or staying at a place for 10 days. However, if the remaining journey is of 8 farsakh or adds upto 8 farsakh on return, he should shorten his prayers.
The fifth condition is that the purpose of travelling should not be haraam. Therefore, if a person travels to do something unlawful, like, to commit theft, he should offer full prayers. The same rule applies when travelling itself is haraam, like, when travelling involves a harm which is haraam in Shariah, or when a wife travels without the permission of her husband for a journey which is not obligatory upon her. But if it is an obligatory journey, like that of Wajib Hajj, then shortened prayers should be offered.
1304. A journey which is not obligatory, and is a cause of displeasure of one's parents, is haraam, and while going on such a journey, one should offer full prayers and should also fast.
1305. A person whose journey is not haraam, nor is it for a purpose which is haraam, should shorten his prayers even if he may, during the journey, commit some sin like, indulging in Gheebat or taking alcohol.
1306. If a person undertakes a journey to avoid some obligatory act, regardless of whether he has some other purpose attached to it, he should offer full prayers. Hence, if a person owes some money, and he undertakes a journey to avoid the demand of his creditor, he should offer full prayers. However, if his journey has different purpose, he should shorten his prayers, even if he leaves out some obligatory acts during that journey.
1307. If a person travels on a vehicle or on an animal which is usurped, and travels to escape from the rightful owner, or if he travels on a usurped land, he will offer full prayers.
1308. If a person is travelling with an oppressor, of his own volition, and by so doing is helpful to the oppressor in his inequity, he should offer full prayers. But if he is helpless, or, if he is travelling with the oppressor to save the oppressed person, he should shorten his prayers.
1309. If a person travels for recreation and outing, his journey is not haraam, and he should shorten his prayers.
1310. If a person goes out for hunting, with the object of sport and pleasure, his prayers during the outward journey will be full, and on return it will be qasr if it does not involve hunting. But if a person goes out for hunting, to earn his livelihood, he should offer shortened prayers. Similarly, if he goes for business and increase in his wealth, he will pray qasr, although in this case, the precaution is that he should offer qasr as well as full prayers.
1311. If a person has journeyed to commit a sin, he should, on his return, shorten his prayers, if the return journey alone covers 8 farsakh. And the recommended precaution is that if he has not done Tawba, he should offer qasr as well as full prayers.
1312. If a person travelling with the purpose of committing a sin, abandons the idea during his journey, he will pray qasr even if the remaining distance from there, or the total of going and returning from there is not 8 farsakh.
1313. If a person who originally set forth on a journey with no intention of sin, decides during his journey to make it a journey of sin, he will offer full prayers. However, the prayers which he might have prayed in qasr form uptill then, will be in order.
The sixth condition is that the traveller should not be a nomad, who roam about in the deserts, and temporarily stay at places where they find food for themselves, and fodder and water for their animals, and again proceed to some other place after a few days' halt. During these journeys the nomads should offer full prayers.
1314. If a nomad travels to find out residence for himself, and pasture for his animals, and carries his bag and baggage with him, he should offer full prayers, otherwise if his journey is 8 farsakh he should shorten his prayers.
1315. If a nomad travels for Ziyarat, Hajj (pilgrimage), trade or any other similar purpose, he should shorten his prayers.
The seventh condition is that travelling should not be his profession, that is, one who has no other work but travelling; or that travelling is the means of his subsistence, like the camel riders, drivers, herdsmen and sailors. Such people will pray full, even if they travel for their personal work, like transporting their own household effects, or transporting their families. Those who live at one place and work at another, commuting every day, or every other day, like students or businessmen etc., fall in this category.
1316. If a person whose profession is travelling, travels for another purpose like, for Hajj, he should shorten his prayers except when he is a known frequent traveller. If, for example, the driver of automobile hires out his vehicle for pilgrimage, and incidentally performs pilgrimage himself as well, he should offer full prayers.
1317. If a person whose profession is that of a courier, that is, a person who travels to transport the pilgrims to Makkah, is travelling, he should offer full prayers, and if his profession is not travelling and he travels only during Hajj days for the purpose of portage, the obligatory precaution is that he should offer qasr as well as full prayers. However, if the period of his journey is short, like two or three weeks, he may offer shortened prayers.
1318. If a person whose profession is that of a courier who takes pilgrims to Makkah from distant places, spends a considerable part of the days in a year travelling, he should offer full prayers.
1319. A person whose profession for a part of the year is travelling, like a driver who hires out his automobile during winter or summer, should offer full prayers during those journeys, and the recommended precaution is that he should offer qasr prayers, as well as full prayers.
1320. If a driver or a hawker, who goes round within an area of 2 or 3 farsakh in the city, happens to travel on a journey consisting of 8 farsakh, he should shorten his prayers.
1321. If a person whose profession is travelling, stays in his home town for 10 days or more, with or without the original intention, he should offer full prayers during the first journey that he undertakes after ten days. The same rule will apply, when he travels after ten days from a place which is not his home town.
1322. If a herdsman whose profession is travelling, stays at his home town or any other place for 10 days with or without any intention, he should, as a recommended precaution, perform both qasr and full prayers when he undertakes his first journey after ten days.
1323. If herdsmen or camel drivers who have travelling as their profession, find it difficult and exhausting to conduct a particular additional journey, they should pray qasr in it.
1324. A person who tours different cities, and has not adopted a homeland for himself, should offer full prayers.
1325. If a person whose profession is not travelling, has to travel quite often to transport a commodity he owns, he will pray qasr, unless the travelling is so frequent that he becomes known as a constant traveller.
1326. If a person is not a professional traveller, and he has abandoned his homeland and wants to adopt another homeland, he should shorten his prayers while he is travelling.
The eighth condition is that the traveller reaches the limit of tarakhkhus, that is, at a point beyond which travelling begins. But if a person is not in his hometown, the rule of tarakhkhus will not apply to him. Just as he travels from his place of residence, his prayers will be qasr.
1327. The limit of tarakhkhus is a place where people of the city do not see the traveller, and its sign is, when he does not see them.
1328. A traveller who is returning to his hometown will continue praying qasr, till he enters the hometown. Similarly, a person who intends to stay for ten days at a place, will offer qasr prayers, till he reaches that place.
1329. If a city is situated at such a height, that the residents can be seen from a distance, or, if it is so low that if a person covers a little distance, he would not see them, a traveller from that city should offer qasr prayers applying that distance, which would make him unable to see them were he travelling on a flat land. And if the elevation or depression of the path varies abnormally, the traveller should take an average mean into consideration.
1330. If a person starts his journey from a place which is uninhabited, he should shorten his prayers when he reaches a place from which the residents, if they had been there, would not have been seen.
1331. If a person travelling in a ship or on a train, starts praying full prayers before reaching the point of tarakhkhus, and if he reaches that point before having gone into the Ruku of the third Rak'at, he should pray qasr.
1332. In the situation mentioned above,if he reaches the point of tarakhkhus after the Ruku of the third Rak'at, he can abandon that prayer, and pray qasr.
1333. If a person was sure that he had reached the point of tarakhkhus, and accordingly started praying qasr, and then he realised that at the time of prayers, he had not reached that point, he should pray again. At that time when he realised this, if he has still not reached the point of tarakhkhus, he will pray full, and if he has already crossed the point, he will pray qasr. And if the time of prayer has lapsed, he will give qadha.
1334. If a person is gifted with an unusually sharp eyesight, enabling him to see from a distance where others may not be able to see, he will pray qasr from a point from where a person with normal vision would not see the residents.
1335. If a person doubts whether or not he has reached the point of tarakhkhus he should offer full prayers.
1336. A traveller who is passing through his hometown, if he makes a stopover there, he will pray full, otherwise, as an obligatory precaution, he will combine both, full as well as qasr prayers.
1337. When a traveller reaches his hometown during his journey, and makes a stopover there, he should offer full prayers as long as he stays there. But, if he wishes to go from there to a distance of 8 farsakh, or to go upto 4 farsakh and then return for the same distance, he should offer qasr prayers when he reaches the limit of tarakhkhus.
1338. A place which a person adopts for his permanent living is his home, irrespective of whether he was born there, or whether it was the home of his parents, or whether he himself selected it as his residence.
1339. If a person intends to stay for some time at a place which is not his original home town, and to later migrate to another place, then such a place will not be considered as his home (Watan).
1340. A place which a person adopts for his residence is his hometown (watan) even if he has not made a specific intention to live there for ever. It is his watan, if the people there do not consider him a traveller, inspite of his sojourn at other place where he may be putting up for ten or less days.
1341. If a person lives at two places, for example, he lives in one city for six months, and in another for another six months, both of them are his home(watan). And, if he adopts more than two places for his living, all of them are reckoned to be his home (watan).
1342. Some Fuqaha have said that if a person owns a house at a place, and lives there continuously for six months, with the intention of living there, he should, as long as that house is owned by him, offer full prayers as and when he travels to that place. But this verdict is not evidenced.
1343. If a person reaches a place which was previously his home, but has since abandoned it, he should not offer full prayers there, even if he may not have adopted a new home (watan).
1344. If a traveller intends to stay at a place continuously for ten days, or knows that he will be obliged to stay at a place for ten days, he should offer full prayers at that place.
1345. If a traveller intends to stay at a place for ten days, it is not necessary that his intention should be to stay there during the first night or the eleventh night. And as soon as he determines that he will stay there from sunrise on the first day up to sunset of the tenth day, he should offer full prayers. Same will apply if, for example, he intends staying there from noon of the first day up to noon of the eleventh day.
1346. A person who intends to stay at a place for ten days, should offer full prayers if he wants to stay for ten days at that place only. If he intends to spend, for example, ten days between Najaf and Kufa, or between Tehran and Shamiran, he should offer qasr prayers.
1347. If a traveller who
wants to stay at a place for ten days, has determined at the
very outset, that during the period of ten days, he will travel
to surrounding places up to the limit of tarakhkhus or more, and
if the period of his going and returning is so brief, that it
cannot be considered as infringement of his intention of staying
there for 10 days, he should offer full prayers.
1348. A traveller, who is not determined to stay at a place for ten days, like, if his intention is that he will stay there for ten days if his friend arrives, or if he finds a good house to stay in, he should offer qasr prayers.
1349. If a traveller has decided to stay at a place for ten days, but at the same time, considers it probable that he may have to leave earlier because of some hindrance, and if that suspicion is justifiable, he should offer shortened prayers.
1350. If a traveller knows, for example, that ten days or more remain before the month ends, and decides to stay at a place till the end of the month he should offer full prayers. But if he does not know how many days remain before the end of the month, and simply decides to stay till the end of the month, he should pray qasr, even if it later turns out to be ten or more days.
1351. If a traveller decides to stay at a place for ten days and abandons the idea before offering one namaz consisting of four Rak'ats, or becomes undecided, he should pray qasr. But, if he abandons the idea of staying there after having offered one namaz consisting of four Rak'ats, or wavers in his intention, he should offer full prayers as long as he is at that place.
1352. If a person who has determined to stay at a place for ten days, keeps a fast and abandons the idea of staying there after Zuhr, if he has offered one namaz consisting of four Rak'ats, his fast on that day, and for as long as he is there, would be valid, and he should offer full prayers. And if he has not offered a namaz consisting of four Rak'ats, the fast kept by him on that day should be, as a precaution, continued and its qadha be given later. He will then pray qasr, and will not fast in the remaining days.
1353. If a traveller who has decided to stay at a place for ten days, abandons the idea, but doubts before changing his intention to stay, whether or not he has offered one namaz consisting of four Rak'ats, he should offer qasr prayers.
1354. If a traveller starts prayers with the intention of qasr, and decides during the prayers that he would stay there for ten days or more, he should offer full prayers consisting of four Rak'ats.
1355. If a traveller who has decided to stay at a place for ten days, changes his mind during his first namaz consisting of four Rak'ats, he should finish his prayers with two Rak'ats if he has not started the third. And in the later days, he should continue with qasr. Similarly, if he has started the third Rak'at, but has not gone into Ruku, he should sit down, and complete the namaz in its shortened form. But if, he has gone into Ruku, he can forsake that namaz, and pray again as qasr. And for as long as he is there, he should pray qasr.
1356. If a traveller who has decided to stay at a place for ten days, stays there for more than ten days, he should offer full prayers as long as he does not start travelling, and it is not necessary that he should make a fresh intention for staying for further ten days.
1357. A traveller who decides to stay at a place for ten days, should keep the obligatory fast; he may also keep Mustahab fast, and offer Nafila (Mustahab everyday prayers) of Zuhr, Asr and Isha prayers.
1358. If a traveller,
who has decided to stay at a place for ten days, if after
offering a namaz of four Rak'ats (not qadha), or after staying
for ten days even without having offered one set of full
prayers, wishes to travel less than 4 farsakh away and to
return, and to stay again at his first place for ten days or
less, he should offer full prayers from the time he goes till he
returns, and after his return.
1359. If a traveller who decides to stay at a place for ten days, after offering namaz (not qadha) of four Rak'ats, decides to go to another place less than 8 farsakh away, and to stay there for ten days, he should offer full prayers while going, and at the place where he intends to stay. But, if the place where he wants to go is 8 farsakh away or more, he should shorten his prayers while going, and if he does not want to stay there for ten days, he should shorten his prayers during the period he stays there also.
1360. If a traveller who has decided to stay at a place for ten days, wishes, after offering namaz (not qadha) of four Rak'ats, to go to a place which is less than 4 farsakh away, and is undecided about returning to his first place, or is totally unmindful about it, or he wishes to return, but is uncertain about staying for ten days, or is totally unmindful of staying there for ten days, or travelling from there, he should from the time of his going till returning, and after his return offer full prayers.
1361. If a person decides to stay at a place for ten days, under the impression that his companions wish to stay there for ten days, and after offering namaz (not qadha) of four Rak'ats, he learns that they have made no such decision, he should offer full prayers as long as he is there, even if he himself gives up the idea of remaining there.
1362. If a traveller stays at a place unexpectedly for thirty days, like, if he remained undecided throughout those thirty days, whether he should stay there or not, he should offer full prayers after thirty days, even it be for a short period.
1363. If a traveller intends to stay at a place for nine days or less, and if after spending nine days or less, he decides to extend his stay for further nine days or less, till thirty days, he should offer full prayers on the thirty first day.
1364. An undecided traveller will offer full prayers after thirty days, if he stays for all thirty days at one place. If he stays for a part of that period at one place, and the rest at another&127; place, he should offer qasr prayers even after thirty days.
1365. A traveller can offer full prayers in Masjidul Haram and Masjidul Nabi and Masjid of Kufa, and even in the entire cities of Makkah, Madina and Kufa. He can also offer full prayers in the Haram of Imam Husayn (A.S.), upto the distance of 25 armlengths from the sacred tomb.
1366. If a person who knows that he is a traveller, and should offer qasr prayers, intentionally offers full prayers at places other than the four mentioned above, his prayers are void. And the same rule applies, if he forgets that a traveller must offer qasr prayers, and prays full. However, if he prays full forgetting that a traveller should offer shortened prayers, and remembers after the time has lapsed, it is not necessary for him to give the qadha.
1367. If a person who knows that he is a traveller, and should offer shortened prayers, offers full prayers by mistake, and realises within the time for that namaz, he should pray again. And if he realises after the lapse of time, he should give qadha as a precaution.
1368. If a traveller does not know that he should shorten his prayers, and if he offers full prayers, his prayers are in order.
1369. If a traveller knew that he should offer shortened prayers, but did not know its details, like, if he did not know that shortened prayers should be offered when the distance of the journey is of 8 farsakh, and if he offers full prayers, as an obligatory precaution, he should repeat the prayers if he comes to know the rule within the time of namaz, and if he does not do that, he will give its qadha. But if he learns of the rule after the time has lapsed, there is no qadha.
1370. If a traveller knows that he should offer shortened prayers, but offers full prayers under the impression that his journey is less than 8 farsakh, when he learns that his journey has been of 8 farsakh, he should repeat the prayers as qasr. And if he learns after the time for the prayers has lapsed, it is not necessary for him to offer qadha.
1371. If a person forgets that he is a traveller and offers complete prayers, and if he remembers this within the time for prayers, he should pray qasr, and if he realises this after the time is over, it is not obligatory for him to offer qadha of that prayers.
1372. If a person who should offer complete prayers, offers qasr instead, his prayers are void in all circumstances; and as a precaution, this will apply even when he ignorantly prays qasr, at a place where he stopped for 10 days.
1373. If a person begins a prayer of four Rak'ats, and remembers during prayers that he is a traveller, or realises that his journey is of 8 farsakh, if he has not gone into the Ruku of the third Rak'at, he should complete namaz with two Rak'ats. But if he has gone into the Ruku of the third Rak'at, his prayer is void. If he has at his disposal, time even to offer one Rak'at, he should offer qasr prayers.
1374. If a traveller is not aware of some of the details regarding the prayers during travel, for example, if he does not know that if he goes on an outward journey of 4 farsakh, and a return journey of 4 farsakh, he should offer shortened prayers, and he engages in prayers with the intention of offering four Rak'ats, if he comes to know the rule before Ruku of the third Rak'at, he should complete the prayers with two Rak'ats. But if he learns of this rule during Ruku, his prayers as a precaution are void. And if he has time at his disposal, even to offer one Rak'at of prayers, he should offer qasr prayers.
1375. If a traveller who should offer complete prayers, ignorantly makes a niyyat for qasr and learns about the rule during namaz, he should complete the namaz with four Rak'ats, and the recommended precaution is that after the completion of the prayers, he should offer a prayer of four Rak'ats once again.
1376. If before the time of prayers lapses, a traveller who has not offered prayers reaches his hometown, or a place where he intends to stay for ten days, he should offer full prayers. And if a person who is not on a journey, does not offer prayers within its time, and then proceeds on a journey, he should offer the prayers during his journey in shortened form.
1377. If the Zuhr, Asr, or Isha prayers of a traveller, who should have offered qasr prayers, becomes qadha, he should perform its qadha as qasr, even if he gives qadha at his hometown or while he is not travelling. And if a non-traveller makes one of the above three prayers qadha, he should perform its qadha as full, even if he may be travelling at the time he offers the qadha.
1378. It is Mustahab that a traveller should say thirty times after every qasr prayers: "Subhanallahi walhamdu lillahi wala ilaha illallahu wallahu Akbar". More emphasis is laid on this after Zuhr, Asr and Isha prayers. In fact, it is better that it is repeated sixty times after these three prayers.
Dialogue on prayer –while Travel
While we were still on the subject of prayer, in this part two of the dialogue, I wanted to test my memory as to the information I had acquired.
So, before my father resumed the talk, I asked him if I could say isha prayer by doing two rukus only.
- No, didn’t I tell you it is a four-ruku prayer.
* The reason why I asked is that I saw you once perform it as such.
- On that occasion, were we on a journey?
- It is true. The reason being that there is a concession for the believers, in that when they are on a journey, they are required to do only two rukus, i.e. qasr prayer of the four-raka’ prayers of dhuhr, asr, and isha prayers, provided that certain requirements are met. These are:
1. The distance covered by any trip, from the home of the mukallaf, must be at least forty four kilometres, be it one way or return.
* What is the point of calculating the distance?
- If you satisfy what is generally accepted as travel, the point starts from the last building on the periphery of the town you live in.
2. The continuity of the purpose of travel, i.e. if you change your mind and abort your journey, say half way, you should perform your prayer in full. That is, if the distance covered in both directions was less than forty four kilometres. If, however, the distance of the outgoing journey and the return one was more than the stipulated minimum, you should say your prayer qasr.
3. The aim behind the travel must be legitimate, i.e. not aiming at committing a haraam act, such as stealing, or the travel was unauthorized, as in the case of a wife embarking on a trip without the permission of her husband. Travel for fun, such as going on a hunting expedition, does not yield qasr prayer.
4. Travellers who do not intend to stop at their home town, those who do not intend to stay a minimum of ten days, and those who remain undecided as to the length of their stay for a period of thirty days qualify for qasr prayer.
* And if a) The intention to stay in one’s home town ten days and over, b) intention to stay for ten days in the destination, and c) they remain undecided for thirty days?
- The people in the first two examples should say their prayer in full (tamam). For the undecided, they should say tamam prayer after the thirtieth day for the duration of their stay thereafter.
5. If someone’s job involves travel, such as a driver, or their work entails frequent travel, they should say their prayer in full.
* What about, say, a businessman, a student, or an employee who live in a town, more than twenty two kilometres away from their respective place of work or university, and need to cover that distance, more or less, on daily basis?
- They must say their prayer in full (tamam).
6. Those who have no permanent abode, such as roving tourist, should say their prayer in full.
* If, during the journey, it was time for prayer, yet I did not say prayer there and then, until I returned to my hometown, what sort of prayer should I say?
- You should say your prayer in full.
* And if it was the other way round, i.e. I was in my hometown when it was time for prayer but could not say it there and then, and set out on a journey that qualifies for the minimum distance of forty four kilometres?
- You should say your prayer qasr.
Salat: The Ritual Prayer
* "In normal cases" means other than the major metropolitan cities where going from one end to another is considered travelling.
Q34: A student, worker or employee studies or works in an area situated at more than 22 km from his city. He goes daily to his workplace and returns to his city, and there is a possibility that this will continue for a year or more. What is the ruling in this case with respect to his prayers and fasts (siyam)?
A: He should offer complete (tamm) prayers and observe the fasts. (FM, pp. 400-401)
Q35: What if he were to travel three or four times a week during the year, not because his job demands travelling, but for other purposes like sight-seeing and tourism or for treating a patient, visiting the shrines of the Imams (a.s.), etc. What is the ruling on his prayers?
A: He should perform complete prayers and observe the fasts, since, given his situation he is considered a frequent traveller according to convention (ëurf). If he were to travel twice a week and stay five days in his hometown [then it is obligatory for him to offer both the short (qasr) and the complete (prayers); and, in the month of Ramadan, to combine observance of the fasts in it (Ramadan) and their qada after it]. (FM, p. 401)
Q36: A mukallaf offers morning prayer in his city and then travels in a westerly direction. He arrives in a city in which the dawn has not yet appeared and then emerges. Or, he offers noon prayer in his city and then travels by air, arriving in a city where the sun has not begun to go down (noon), and only later begins its descent. Or, he offers the evening prayer in it (city), then travels to a city where the sun has not yet set, and then sets. Is he obliged to repeat the prayer in all these hypothetical situations?
A: There are two perspectives. It is a better precaution (to repeat the prayer), although apparently it is not (obligatory to repeat it). (MS, p. 464, Q81)
Q.5) As a result of expansion some cities, which used to comprise a number of townships, have become very big ones. Do you consider such cities as one [physically] or the old demarcations between its different neighbourhoods should be observed? Say, you set out on a journey heading to some other destination, from the eastern most point. The time for prayer was due, while you were still within its boundaries, that is in the westernmost point. Do you perform your prayer tamam (in its entirety) or qasr (shortened form). Also, when you return to such a big city and the time for prayer was due, while you were in its outskirts, do you say your prayer qasr or tamam? And what is the ruling on fasting in such a situation?
As explained in the question, such a city is considered one, i.e. the rule of different towns is not applicable. Of course, the yardstick in calculating the distance is the definition of Musafir (traveller). If such a city is very big and it fulfils the definition, when the person embarks on his journey from his neighbourhood, though it be inside the city, the rule of Musafir applies here. Thus, the distance is calculated from the approaches of the neighbourhood of the Mukkallaf. If the definition does not apply unless he gets out of the city, the end of the city should be the start of calculating the distance from the edge of tarakhus (the point at the parameter of a town, when, for instance, adhan "call for prayer" can be heard).
(72) A mukallaf said Subh(dawn) prayer in his home town, he then travelled to a Western destination. He arrived at a town before dawn. Then dawn broke.
On a second assumption, he said Dhuhr (noon) prayer in his home town, then travelled by air. He arrived at a town where the sun was yet to enter into decline [to the West]. Then it entered into decline.
On a third one, he said Maghrib (sunset) prayer in his home town, then travelled arriving at a town where the sun has not yet set. Then sunset happened.
Is it obligatory on him to repeat his prayers in all these assumptions?
There are two options. As a matter of ihtiyat, it is obligatory [that he repeats his prayers]. The second is that, alal adhhar, it is not obligatory.
(73) A mukallaf did not perform his prayer on time, such as in the case of sunrise or sunset without him being able to perform Subh, Dhuhr and Asr (afternoon) prayers. He travelled and arrived at a town where neither sunrise nor sunset has taken place. Should he perform his prayers adaa’ (as if they were performed at their prescribed times), qadhaa’ (in lieu), or ma fith thimmah (as if he was repaying a debt)?
There is more than one course of action. However, as a matter of ihtiyat, they should be performed with the niyyah of ma fith thimmah, meaning in a more general sense than performing them adaa’ or qadhaa’.
(74) A mukallaf, travelling by air, wanted to perform his prayer aboard the plane. If it was possible, i.e. fulfilling the conditions of facing the [direction] of qibla, stability of position, and others, his prayer is in order. Conversely, it will not be in order, as a matter of ihtiyat, especially if he still has such ample time that he would be able to perform it fulfilling all conditions, after he disembarks the plane.
In case, however, time was pressing, he should perform his prayer aboard the plane. If he was able to locate the direction of qibla, he should face that direction. His prayer would not be in order if he breaks the condition of direction, unless for a necessity. In this case, he should move towards the direction of the qibla whenever the aeroplane moves [in the opposite direction]; he should abstain from recitation during the time of moving. If it was not possible to set his face to the qibla, he should take account of the fact that it should be between right and left. If it was not possible to ascertain the direction of qibla, he should do his best to try to identify it and act according to what he has reached of guess work. If this was not feasible, he should perform his prayer facing any direction that might contain the qibla. As a matter of ihtiyat, however, he should perform his prayers once in each of [the] four directions..
This is being so if he was able to face the qibla, otherwise saying (takbiratul ihraam) - Allah is Great [one of the main parts of prayer, after niyyah] would do. If neither is possible, the condition regarding facing qibla ceases to be operative.
However, as a matter of strong possibility (al aqwa), it is permissible to board an aeroplane and the like as a matter of choice before the onset [of prayer], albeit with the knowledge that he would be obliged to perform prayer on board, not fulfilling the two conditions of facing the qibla and maintaining a stable position.
(75) A person travelled aboard an aeroplane [craft], whose speed is equal to that of the earth, heading towards the West from the East. The craft went into orbit around the earth for some time. In such a case, the five prayers should be performed in every twenty-four hour period with the niyyah of alqurbal mutlaqah (The intention for prayer done with a view to seeking nearness to Allah, i.e. without designating whether it is adaa’ or qadhaa’). As for fasting, it should later be performed qadhaa’.
If the speed of the [space craft] was double that of the earth, the cycle is, naturally, completed in periods of twelve hours. Is it obligatory on the traveller to perform Subh prayer at every dawn, Dhuhr and Asr prayers at every noon time, and Maghrib and Isha at every sunset?
As a matter of ihtiyat luzumi, [one should perform prayers in the manner suggested by the question, i.e. five prayers every twelve hours].
If, for example, the space craft orbited the earth at three-hour intervals or less, evidently it is not obligatory to perform prayers at every dawn, noon, and sunset. As a matter of ihtiyat, one should perform prayers at twenty-four hour cycles with the niyyah of alqurbal mutlaqah. To do so, one should take into consideration the occurrence of Subh prayer between two dawns, Dhuhr and Asr between a noon and a sunset that follows it, and Maghrib and Isha between a sunset and a midnight that follows it.
To sum up, if the movement of the craft was from the West to East and its speed was equivalent to that of the earth, evidently prayers should be performed at their prescribed times. Similarly, if its speed was less than that of the earth, or it was much more than that of the earth, such as the cycle is completed every three hours, the rules that should be applied are as discussed in the preceding paragraph.
(79) If the mukallaf was in a place where day light goes for six months on end and so as night, he should, as a matter of ihtiyat, observe the changing of day and night in a twenty-four hour cycle in the nearest town to where he lives. He could then perform the five prayers according to the time table of that town with the niyyah of al qurbal mutlaqah. As for fasting, he could move to a town where he could be able to perform fasting, either during Ramadhan or later. If neither is possible fidya (redemption) for not fasting should be in order.
The mukallaf is in a town that has day and night in a twenty-four hour cycle. The proportion, however, of day and night is such that day light is twenty-three hours and night time is one hour, or vice versa. The rules regarding prayer times should follow the sequence of day and night.
As for fasting Ramadhan, it should be performed as best as he could. Otherwise, it does not become obligatory. If it was possible to fast in lieu, it becomes obligatory. If not, fidya for not fasting becomes due.
FASTING WHILE TRAVEL
Fasting by a traveller
1723. A traveller for whom it is obligatory to shorten a four Rak'ats prayers to two Rak'ats, should not fast. However, a traveller who offers full prayers, like, a person who is a traveller by profession or who goes on a journey for a haraam purpose, should fast while travelling.
1724. There is no harm in travelling during the month of Ramadhan, but it is Makrooh to travel during the month to evade fasting. And similarly, it is Makrooh to travel before the 24th of Ramadhan unless travelling is undertaken for the purpose of Hajj or Umrah or for some important work.
1725. If it is
obligatory on a person to observe a particular fast other than
the fasts of Ramadhan, like, if he has undertaken to fast on
behalf of someone against payment, or if it is the fast of the
third day of I'tekaf, he cannot travel on that day, and if he is
already on journey then he should make a Niyyat to stay there
for ten days, if possible, and keep the fast.
1726. If a person makes a vow to observe a Mustahab fast and does not specify any day for it, he cannot keep the fast while travelling. However, if he makes a vow that he will observe fast on a particular day during a journey, he should observe that fast during the journey. Also, if he makes a vow that he will observe a fast on a particular day, whether he is journeying on that day or not, he should observe the fasts on that day even if he travels.
1727. A traveller can observe Mustahab fasts in Madinah for three days with the Niyyat of praying for the fulfilment of his wish, and as a precaution, those three days be Wednesday, Thursday and Friday.
1728. If a person does not know that the fast of a traveller is invalid and observes fast while journeying, and learns about the rule during the day, his fast becomes void, but if he does not learn about the rule till Maghrib, his fast is valid.
1729. If a person forgets that he is a traveller or forgets that the fast of a traveller is void, and observes fast while journeying, is fast is invalid.
1730. If a fasting person travels after Zuhr, he should, as a precaution, complete his fast. If he travels before Zuhr and had an intention from the previous night to do so, he cannot fast on that day. As a precaution, he cannot fast on that day even if he had no intention to travel from the previous night. In both the cases, he cannot break the fast till he has reached the limit of Tarakkhus. If he does, he will be liable to give Kaffarah.
1731. If a traveller in the month of Ramadhan, regardless of whether he was travelling before Fajr, or was fasting and then undertook the journey, reaches his hometown before Zuhr or a place where he intends to stay for ten days, and if has not committed an act which invalidates a fast, he should fast on that day. But if he has committed such an act, it is not obligatory on him to fast on that day.
1732. If a traveller reaches his hometown after Zuhr, or a place where he intends to stay for ten days, he cannot fast on that day.
1733. It is Makrooh for a traveller and for a person who cannot fast owing to some excuse, to have sexual intercourse or to eat or drink to his fill, during the day time in Ramadhan.
1706. If a person did not fast on certain days because of some excuse and later doubts about the exact date on which the excuse was over, it will not be obligatory on him to offer qadha basing his calculation on the higher number. For example, if a person travelled before the commencement of the month of Ramadhan, and now does not remember whether he returned on the 5th of Ramadhan or on the 6th, or if he travelled in the last days of the month of Ramadhan and returned after Ramadhan, and now does not remember whether he travelled on the 25th of Ramadhan or on the 26th, in both the cases, he can observe qadha based on the lesser number of days, that is, five days. However, the recommended precaution is that he should offer qadha for the higher number of days, that is, six days.
Suppose someone commutes daily to the place where they work, study, or go about their business; the place happens to be over 22 km. away from where they live. What form of prayer should they perform, and do they have to fast?
- The prayer shall be tamam and they should fast too.
* Should the journeying be irregular, say three times a week the year round, and the nature of business of the person concerned was not of that which involves travel?
- Such people should say their prayer in full and the same goes for fasting, because they fit the description of people who are “constantly on the move”, or (katheeris-safar). If, however, such people make the trip twice a week, they [should combine both, praying tamam and qasr. So do their fasting, i.e. they should fast Ramadhan and fast again later].
* What shall become of the obligatory fasting of someone on a day when they travelled after zawal?
- [They carry on with their fast], i.e. they are not required to make up for that day.
* Should they make the journey before zawal, having intended to do so the night before, can they still fast?
- [No, fasting should be observed on that day]; they should, therefore, break their fast upon getting to heddet-tarakhus (the point at the periphery of a town where, for example, adhan could be heard. This concerns distances to determine whether prayer should be said tamam or qasr). They should fast later to make up for that day. The same ruling applies to such people as making the journey without niyyah the night before.
* Someone returning from a trip arrived in their hometown after zawal. Do they have to observe abstinence (imsak) for the rest of the day?
- Although not obligatory, it is advisable for them to abstain from food and drink for the rest of the day. The same applies to him who arrived before zawal and was not fasting because of travel.
* If such people returned to their town of domicile before zawal and were observing fast, how should they go about it?
- They should make niyyah of fasting and abstain from any acts that render fast that day invalid. They are, therefore, not required to fast in lieu.
What about the person who is on a journey?
- If he sets out for a journey after zawaal, [he should continue with his fast]. Should he set out before dawn, he should not fast.
* What if he travels after dawn?
- In this case, [fasting is not in order, irrespective of whether or not it was clear in his mind that(76) The nature of business or job of a mukallaf is such that he should fast during travelling time. Dawn broke while he is still in his home town. He decided to travel by air with the intention of fasting. If he arrives at an other town while the dawn has not yet broken, is it permissible for him to eat and drink and do similar acts?
Evidently, it is permissible.
(77) During the month of Ramadhan, a traveller set on a journey from his home town ba’daz zawaal (after the sun disc has declined toward the West). He arrived at another town where the sun was still in a position before zawaal. Is it obligatory on him to abstain from eating and drinking, and thus complete his fasting?
As a matter of ihtiyat, it is the case.
(78) The nature of business or job of a mukallaf is such that he should fast during travelling time. He travelled from his home town where he sighted the new moon of Ramadhan, and arrived at another destination where no sighting has taken place. This is because the two destinations are located in two different horizons. It is not obligatory on him to fast for that day.
The new moon of Shawwal was sighted in a town and Eid (festivities marking the end of the fasting season) was celebrated. Then the mukallaf made a journey to another town, where the moon has not yet been sighted for difference of their horizons. As a matter of ihtiyat, abstaining from eating and drinking should be maintained for the rest of that day. Fasting c71) During Ramadhan, a fasting person travelled by air to a destination in the West. He did not break his fast in his place of residence. He then arrived at a place where the sun has not yet set. Is it obligatory on him to abstain from eating and drinking till the time of sun set?
Apparently, it is not obligatory, although abstaining is advisable as a matter of ihtiyat. should be performed at later date.
Q37: What is the ruling for a person who travels after noon (zuhr) during the month of Ramadan while fasting?
A: [He should complete his fast] and there is no qada on him. (FM, p. 401)
??? he intended to travel the evening before]. He should, therefore, do qadha.
MISCELLANOUS TRAVEL RULES
Q127: If a father says to his child: I know that
there is no danger involved in your trip, my child, but your
separation from me, your absence and the distance are really
hard for me to bear and cause me suffering; it is for this
reason that I forbid you to
A: In this case then, it is not permissible for him to go on the trip, as long as such travel causes his father suffering. (FM, pp. 435-36)
Question: If a Muslim is sure
of his father’s displeasure —although he has not heard him say
no— in his
travelling abroad, is it permissible for him to
should he know that the journey is good for him?
It is not permissible for the child to go against the express wish of his parents, for what makes them take such a stand is their concern for the wellbeing of their child.
* Suppose the child wanted to travel, and the parents were sure that no harm would befall their child, yet the parents could not contemplate the idea of their child being away from them; it could upset them. So, they objected to their child’s making such a journey. Can the child still make the trip?
- Let me put it this way: If the child was not going to suffer adversely from travelling, and his insistence on making the trip could result in upsetting his parents, he must not go away.
Boundaries of a city
Q48: There are extended cities with adjoining borders
and sides which, in the past, were reckoned to be separate
cities, but after prosperous growth, became one city. Do you
regard them as one or several cities?
The hypothetical cities all count as one. The rulings of
separate cities does not actually apply to this case. True, the
rule with respect to computing the distance is from the point at
which the term ìtravellerî (musafir) becomes applied to someone.
Were this city truly one of the larger cities and the term
(ìtravellerî) is applied upon the exit of a person from his zone
or area of residence, even if it is deemed to be inside the
city, then the ruling of ìtravellerî applies on him.
RE QIBLA DIRECTION
A person who wishes to offer prayers, should make efforts to ascertain the direction of Qibla, and for that, he has to either be absolutely sure, or acquire such information as may amount to certainty, like testimony of two reliable persons. If that is not possible, he should form an idea from the Niche (Mehrab) of the Masjid or from the graves of the Muslims, or by other ways, and act accordingly. In fact, if a non-Muslim who can determine Qibla by scientific method, indicates Qibla satisfactorily, he can be relied upon.
791. If a person, who has a mere surmise about Qibla, and is in a position to have a better idea, he should not act on that guess work. For example, if a guest has an idea about the direction of Qibla on the statement of the owner of the house, but feels that he can acquire a firmer knowledge about Qibla by some means, he should not act on his host's words.
792. If a person does not possess any means of determining the direction of Qibla, or in spite of his efforts, he cannot form an idea about it, it will be sufficient for him to offer his prayers facing any direction. And the recommended precaution is that, if he has sufficient time at his disposal, he should offer the same prayers 4 times, each time facing every one of the four directions.
793. If a person is sure or guesses that Qibla is on one of the two directions, he should offer prayers facing both.
794. If a person has to offer prayers facing a few direction, and wants to offer two prayers like Zuhr prayers and Asr prayers, which should be offered one after the other, the recommended precaution is that he should offer the first namaz facing those few directions, and then commence the second prayers.
795. If a person who is not certain about the direction of Qibla, wishes to perform acts other than namaz, which should be done facing the Qibla like, slaughtering an animal, he should act according to his surmise about the direction of Qibla , and if that does not seem possible, then performing the act facing any direction will be valid.
Direction of Toilet -In case one does not know or cannot/does not find out the direction etc what r obligations?
JAMAAT FOR TRAVELLERS
QASR SALAT: SHORTENED SALAT FOR A TRAVELLERMaulana Abul Qasim Rizvi, Panjtan Ctr, Melbourne 15