SAYED RADI AL DEEN ABUL QASIM ALI IBNE MOOSA IBNE JAFAR IBNE TAOOS
Title : Radi al Deen Kunyat : Abul Qasim
Born : Thursday 5 Moharrum 579 H At : HILLA
Died : Sunday 664 H At : HILLA
ABOUT THE TAOOS FAMILY
About the scholars of the Taoos family it can be said that it had a unique position in the annals of Shia learning that many eminent illustrious names trace their ancestory to this clan.
In Mafateeh al Janaan, the compendium of widely recited supplications, Ibn e Taoos’ book ,“Iqbal”, is referred to time and again. This has been a very revered family that had produced Ulema for several generations. Even women in the family were persons of erudition and some had reached the status of Ijtehad. Since this family has produced many reputed scholars, we shall briefly profile their lives.The family of Taoos traces its origins to the Second Imam, Imam Hassan (a.s). Their forbear was Hazrat Hassan Muthanna, the second son of Imam Hassan (a.s). The Imam (a.s) had given his own name to this son of his because he had great love and affection for him.
Imam Hussain (a.s) too had much affection for this nephew of his. Therefore his daughter, Fatima, was given in marriage to Hassan Muthanna. The Imam (a.s) had said at the time of this marriage that he didn’t find anyone more deserving of his daughter than that nephew of his. Hassan e Muthanna had participated in the battle of Karbala where he was mortally wounded and fell down unconscious. The enemies thought that he was dead. When the heads of the martyrs were being severed by the men of Omer ibn e Saad, they noticed that there was still life in Hassan e Muthanna. They wanted to sever his head when a woman from the army of Omer ibn e Saad, Asma binte Kharija, prevented them from killing him because she was distantly related to the mother of Hassan e Muthanna. He was thus spared and taken captive to Koofa where he was incarcerated with the other members of the Imam (a.s)’s family. Asma strongly recommended not taking Hassan Muthanna along with the Ahl al Bayt (a.s) to Damascus. She took him to her home in Koofa and treated his grievous wounds to recovery. He was then sent on to Madina. After some time, at his age of 35 years, Abd al Marwan ibn e Malik poisoned him to death. His widow, Fatima bint e Hussain (a.s) had great love for him and for one year she stayed near his grave lamenting his death inconsolably. Then, they say, she heard a herald asking her to return home. Hassan Muthanna had a son, Dawood by name. He was from another wife of Hassan Muthanna. Dawood was also the son-in-law of the fourth Imam Zain al Abedin (a.s) that he was married to Umm Kulthum, his daughter. It is also said that Dawood’s mother suckled her milk to our Sixth Imam Jafar e Sadiq (a.s). Dawood was one of the members of the family of the Ahl al Bayt (a.s) who were incarcerated by Mansoor Duwaniqi because he feared a general uprising in their support.Dawood’s mother went to Imam Jafar e Sadiq (a.s) and complained to him about the incarceration of her son. The Imam (a.s) gave her a supplication for reciting on 15th Rajab after fasting for three days. This supplication is recorded in our prayer books as Amal um e Dawood and is very effective when recited in periods of difficulty.When Dawood’s mother recited the supplication, he was miraculously released from the gaol and returned to Madina. Dawood had a son Sulaiman. Sulaiman had a grand son Hassan and Hassan’s grand son was Abu Abd Allah Muhammad. Abu Abd Allah had a very handsome personality but his feet were hard like those of a Taoos or the peacock. Therefore he is remembered as Taoos and those who descended from him are called the family of Taoos.
THE ULEMA OF BANI TAOOS
In the family of Taoos, were born, during the two generations, many great scholars. The most notable among them was Sayed Radi ud Deen ibne Taoos. He had two other siblings, Jamal ud Deen Ahmed and Sharf ud Deen. These brothers were younger than Radi ud Deen. These three brothers were born in a very important period because after Sheik Toosi the scholars, however eminent they were, had stopped givng Fatwa. None of them had the courage to give any edict that might be contrary to what Sheik Toosi had ruled. Sheik Toosi had one grand-nephew who changed this trend. A hiatus was created between the periods of Sheik Toosi and Allama Hilli. The Taoos family came into prominence during this period.because it produced three very eminent scholars. Now we are discussing about the eldest of the three, Sayed Radi Ud Deen ibne Taoos. During this discussion mention will come about the other members of this illustrious family.
Radi ud Deen specialized in the matters of Fiqh and his works can be found in the compendia of supplications. The reason for his not delving in more intricate matters was that he was very careful in avoiding issue of Fatwa (edicts) in religious matters. He is on the top of the roster of our scholars who have never done anything Haram (taboo), Makrooh (Permissible in certain circumstances but undesirable) and even Mubah (permissible). He preferred to do Wajib (Obligatory) acts and in rare instances he would do the Mustaheb (Desirable). He would never go beyond the limits of the Mustaheb in his actions. He was very conscious of the interrogation that he would have to face in the grave and on the Day of Reckoning. He has written about 70 books and a small booklet about Salat (Prayers) and problems connected with it. Although he was recognized as an authority on the matters of Fiqh, he never gave a Fatwa. His erudition was of such eminence that the other scholars had given Fatwas on the basis of his utterances, but he himself never once came up with a Fatwa. Imagine, in our times, even a run-off- the- mill Momin starts giving Fatwas on any matter and rejects the edict of eminent scholars and, with all his eminence, Sayed Radi ud deen Taoos was doubly careful in refusing to pronounce Fatwas. His thought was that if he made a fatwa in error, the person who followed it would be punished and he himself will be liable for a more severe punishment.
Radi ud Deen Taoos had reached such a status that the Imam e Zamana (a.s) has called him his own son. His name was Ali ibne Moosa ibne Jafar and our 8th Imam (a.s) had the same name for three generations. A poet has very aptly composed a couplet in this regard:
Haada Ali ibn e Moosa ibn e Jafar Shabeeh Ali (a.s) ibne Moosa (a.s) ibne Jafar (a.s)
He is Ali son of Moosa son of Jafar The same way as Ali (a.s) son of Moosa (a.s) Son of Jafar (a.s)
The poet, penning the eulogy of Radi ud Deen Taoos, says that the Sayed seemed to him as the shabeeh (Image) of the three Imams (a.s) who had the same names for three consecutive generations. Because of his extreme care in the matters of religion, he was considered as Mustajaab al Dawaat or the one whose prayer is always answered by Allah. Perhaps he was the only scholar who was aware of the Ism e Azam—Ineffable Word Cherished for Incantation! It is a general belief that out of the 1000 names of Allah, one of them is the Ism e Azam. If one could identify this name, all his desires would be fulfilled! Radi ud Deen too believed this. He used to tell to his sons that he wished to teach the Ism e Azam to them before he expired as a gift to them. He did the Istakhara (Augury) twice, but both times he was forbidden from giving them the information. He told them that it was written in one of his books and that they should search it themselves.
Sayed Radi ud deen Taoos has written 70 books, and among these books are Misbah al Zahir, Kitab e Lahoof, Kitab e Iqbal. In Kitab e Lahoof he has written about the event of Karbala. Although a small booklet Lahoof describes the martyrdom of Imam Hussain (a.s) and his small group of companions in a very lucid and concise manner.
The mother of Radi Ud Deen Taoos was herself a learned lady. She was the grand daughter of the great scholar, Sheik Toosi whose profile we have given in an earlier chapter. Sheik Toosi had personally given a certificate to his grand daughter, Sayed Radi ud Deen’s mother, to do Ijtehad. She was also a daughter of the great scholar Sheik Wadaam.
THE REASON FOR KEEPING AQEEQ (CORNELIAN STONE) IN THE MOUTH AT BURIAL
Sheik Wadaam was an eminent scholar of his times. He was a great traditionist and Faqih. There is a fatwa of our eminent scholars that it is desirable to put an Aqeeq into the mouth of a dead person at the time of burial. The names of the Prophet (s.a) and the 12 Imams (a.s) should be engraved on that stone. It is certainly a Fatwa of our eminent scholars but no tradition of the Infallibles (a.s) is recorded on this matter.
The reason for this Fatwa is explained like this.: Sayed Radi ud Deen Tawoos says with reference to his maternal grand-father, Sheik Wadaam, that when he was in throes of death, he made a will that an Aqeeq must be kept under his tongue before his burial. The names mentioned earlier must be engraved on it. He said that thus he would be able to answer the questions of Mnkir and Nakeer easily. Sayed Radi al Deen Tawoos writes in his book, Jamal al Saliqeen, that his grand father had made the will and he was sure that he wouldn’t do anything contrary to the wishes of the Ahl al Bayt (a.s). Therefore, there must be a tradition of the Imams (a.s) .on the matter which, somehow, has not reached us. Sayed Radi ud Deen therefore made a will that an Aqeeq, engraved with the names of the Prophet (s.a) and the 12 Imams (a.s) should be put in his mouth prior to burial.
Thereafter, all the Ulema, till the present times, have continued to advice following the practice. Sayed Wadaam, the grand father of Sayed Radi ud Deen, was a scholar of such eminence that the Imam e Zamana (a.s) used to reply to his letters. Therefore we recount here a very famous incident
SHEIK WADAAM grandfather WRITES A LETTER TO IMAM E ZAMANA
Rasheed abd al Abbas says that he went to Kazimain for some work. He found Sheik Wadaam there. Surprised, he asked him why he was visiting Kazimain? He said that he had come there from Hilla for Ziarat (Visit) to the mausolia of the Imams (a.s). He said that he was in a great hurry to get back home, but he had a certain important task to accomplish and he knew that other than Imam e Zamana (a.s) no other person could help him in the matter. He said that he had already prepared a letter of submission to the Imam (a.s) but he was wondering if he could get a reliable person to take it to the cellar at Samarra, from where the Imam (a.s) went into hiding.
Rasheed abd al Abbas told him that he himself had plans of going immediately to Samarra and that he would do the Sheik’s work. The Sheik told him to put the letter carefully in the cellar in the night and again check in the morning if the paper was there. If the letter disappears, it would mean that the Sheik’s task would be accomplished. Rasheed went for the Ziarat of the Cellar and put the letter under a small stone in a corner. He went early morning, the next day, to the cellar and found that, despite it being close from all sides, the letter was missing. He noticed that the little stone that he had kept over the letter was very carefully removed and kept in another place in the cellar. When he returned to Kazimain he was told that Sheik Wadaam was in a hurry and he had left for Hilla. Rasheed had to travel to Hilla for some work after a time. There he met Sheik Wadaam. He told that the very next day of his placing the letter in the Cellar at Samarra, Sheik Wadaam’s difficult work was accomplished.
AN INCIDENT--- IMAM E ZAMANA CALLS SAYED RADI UD DEEN HIS SON
Sayed Radi ud Deen was one of the most pious persons of his time. He was not only a Sayed but was a true follower of the Ahl al Bayt (a.s). Ismail Harkali says that once he was seriously ill that an abscess developed on his thigh and it grew to the size of a wrist. This abscess was there for a long time and it particularly used to give him severe pain during the spring season. He used to lose a lot of blood through the abscess. He said that he wasn’t able to properly offer his mandatory prayers because of the abscess. He worried so much about this that he went from his village to the town of Hilla. There he met Sayed Radi Ud Deen ibne Taoos who was the most eminent scholar of the Shias those days although he wasn’t recognized as their Pontiff, only, perhaps because he abstained from issuing edicts to the believers. Ismail Harkali met him and explained his problem to him. Sayed Radi ud Deen called all the physicians of Hilla and sought their advice. They suggested that the only possible cure was the amputation of the abscessed limb. But they also said that there was great risk even in the amputation because there was the risk of severance of some vital veins in the process of amputation. The physicians were Momins and they didn’t want to give him careless advice.
Sayed Radi ud Deen asked Ismail Harkali that the Shariah gives permission to offer your prayers despite the impurity of the pus oozing from the abscess. He said, in fact, prayers in such excrutiating conditions will be doubly felicitous. Now there was only one city, Baghdad, where there could perhaps be a possibility of his finding a cure. Baghdad was the capital of the realm and scholars of all the disciplines were assembled there. Ismail Harkali thought that he must head for Baghdad. He met the personal physician of the Caliph and went to heavy expense to take his treatment. He spent all his money but the cure was not in sight. He had spent all his funds and was then subject to abject penury. He now thought that he would go and seek the help of the Imam e Zamana (a.s) in Samarra. Therefore he proceeded from Baghdad to Samarra. Many days he continued to pay visits to the Mausoleum of the Imams (a.s) and also visited the cellar from where the Last Imam (a.s) went into hiding. Although the cellar at Samarra isn’t the abode of the Imam (a.s), it is certainly associated with his memory. Many days went by when he thought that there was no hope of his recovery from the abscess and he was thinking of returning home disappointed. He thought that he had left his wife and children at home long enough and that he must go back to them. Therefore the next morning, early with the sunrise, he went out of the ramparts of the city. Near the ramparts was flowing the river Dajla. He took a bath there and wanted to visit the mausoleums to bid adieu to the Imams (a.s). He changed into a clean dress and carried water in a pitcher for cleaning the abscess if it suppurated.. This was as a caution for his entering the mausoleum in a clean state. As he entered the ramparts of the town, he found four persons cantering on horses towards him. Their personalities and garments were different from those of the Samarrans. He thought that they must be some travelers passing through the town. They came near him and suddenly stopped. Two of them were youths. They came and stood on his left. There was one elderly person who stood on the other side.The fourth person, who was neither a youth nor an old person, stood in front of him. He asked him about the condition of the abscess and that he would like to inspect it. He replied that the abscess was increasing by the day. Ismail thought that he had just cleaned himself and was going for the Ziarat. He was wondering if he would lose his cleanliness if the person touched his abscess. He therefore refused to oblige. Now the person strongly protested why he wasn’t willing to show them his abscess? Then the person bent low, pushed aside the garment from his thigh, held the abscess in his hands. Suddenly the pus gushed out from the abscess. He felt pain for a while but was relieved soon thereafter. Then the person put his hand over the area of the abscess and it looked completely cured. The person put back his garment in its place and said, “O Ismail! You are now fully healed!” He wondered who this person was? How could he know his name? He asked, puzzled and amazed, “How is it that you know me by name?!” The elderly person standing on his right said, “Ismail! Greet him! He is your Imam e Zamana (a.s)!” Ismail greeted the Imam (a.s). But replying to his greeting he swiftly mounted the steed and the four persons sped away from sight in no time! Ismail tried to sprint behind the horse of the Imam (a.s). For once the Imam (a.s) stopped his horse and asked him to return back. He continued to run behind the Imam (a.s)’s steed. He stopped a second time, and a third time when he said angrily, “O Ismail! I am your Imam e Zamana and I have asked you twice not to follow me! Even then in sheer disobedience you continued to come behind us!” Ismail was taken aback. He turned back towards Samarra. It was early morning and people were stirring out of their homes. He asked them if they had seen the four persons speeding through the town on their steeds. They replied in the affirmative. Ismail asked them if they knew the four riders? They said that they didn’t know them but their facees and their attire indicated that they were not from that area. Then Ismail said that they deprived themselves the opportunity of meeting the Imam e Zamana (a.s). The persons gathered around him and asked if he had been able to meet the Imam (a.s). He told them that he was visiting Samarra seeking a cure for the abscess on his thigh. He informed that the Imam (a.s) himself touched the abscess and it was instantly cured. The persons removed the cloth from his thigh to see if that was the case. They also inspected the thigh of the second leg too. There wasn’t any sign if ever there was an abscess on any of his thighs. The persons snatched away small pieces of his garment to keep with themselves as a memento. They said that Ismail was the fortunate person whose body was touched by the Imam (a.s). He went with difficulty to the seraglio, changed into a fresh garment and started moving towards Baghdad. When he reached the Baghdad Bridge, he saw a wondrous scene. The story of his miraculous cure had reached mch before he reached there and there was a huge crowd waiting for him on the bridge. Whenever any traveler reached the bridge, they would ask his name and then let him pass. Ismail didn’t know why they were asking the name of the new arrivals. When he told them that he was Ismail Harkali, they caught hold of him as was done by the men in Samarra. It was almost a stampede and he was about to swoon and fall down. Then he noticed Sayed Radi ud Deen ibne Taoos coming towards him with a big crowd following him. He asked the men to allow him some fresh air.
Hearing his admonition, the men moved away from Ismail. Sayed Radi ud Deen caught hold of his shoulder and took him to his house in Baghdad. He told Ismail that the entire populace in Baghdad knew about his miraculous cure. Ismail related to him the entire episode. He told him that not only the story was correct but the Imam (a.s) had sent a personal message for Sayed Radi ud Deen. Sayed Radi ud Deen immediately offered a prayer of thanksgiving and took him along to the caliph. The caliph was a follower of the Al e Mohammed (s.a). Sayed Radi ud Deen recounted the entire event to the vizier. The vizier informed about it to the caliph. The caliph called them immediately to his court and ordered all the eminent physicians of Bhagdad to immediately report at the court. They all came there. The caliph asked them if they remembered Ismail who approached them some days ago for the treatment of the abscess on his thigh. They confirmed that they did inspect the abscess and also that they thought that it wasn’t possible to treat it. The only alternative was the amputation of the limb. The caliph asked, if the abscess had healed, what would have been the result. They said that if the abscess really healed, it would leave an ugly mark on the spot for atleaset two months or more which would turn into a white mark that the person would carry for his entire life. Now the caliph asked Ismail to move his garment from the spot where the abscess was. The physicians inspected it minutely and were surprised that there wasn’t any mark of the abscess there and the skin was as healthy as that of a healthy person.
One of the physicians was a Christian. He said that what happened could only be a miracle of Hazrat Eesa (a.s). Now the team of the physicians was sent away. The caliph wanted to give to Ismail a thousand Dinars as a gift, which he politely refused. The caliph was surprised why he was not accepting the gratuity. He said that the one who cured him has asked not to accept any gift.. Ismail now went back to the place of Sayed Radi ud Deen ibne Taoos. He wrote a letter to Ali ibne Owais who sent to Ismail a purse containing 1,000 Dinars. When Ismail Harkali returned to his village, his son saw the thigh and was surprised that the abscess had totally disappeared and there was no mark left! Even hair had grown at that spot as it normally does. We have recounted this event in detail to impress on you the spiritual status of Sayed Radi ud Deen that the Imam e Zamana (a.s) called him his son and had met him personally several times. Sometimes the Imam (a.s) used to send his messengers to him. Sayed ibne Taoos has written several books on the subject and had recorded the events of his meetings with the Imam (a.s).
A MEETING WITH THE IMAM (A.S)
A friend and Sayed Radi ud Deen were proceeding to a mosque that was situated between Baghdad and Koofa. That mosque was named after Hazrat Amir al Momineen (a.s) and it is said that he had personally offered several prayers there. Sayed ibne Taoos himself says:
“I went to the mosque with my friend. At that moment there was no other person there. We busied ourselves in prayer. We were in the midst of the prayer when a person riding on a camel arrived, stopped it at the entrance of the mosque and entered. He too started offering prayers. He didn’t utter a word to us, but his personality, the radiance of his face and his dress indicated to us that he was a great personage! My friend who had accompanied me to the mosque asked, ‘Who could this person be?’ I told him, ‘Since the mosque is associated with Hazrat Ali (a.s), the visitor could be Hazrat Khizr (a.s)! Because it is said that Khizr (a.s) used to visit the Maula (a.s) to seek his guidance on several intricate matters. He had no courage to start a conversation with him. He concluded the prayer and started to mount his camel. Sayed Radi ud Deen, and his friend, took courage in their hands, went out of the mosque, and asked him, ‘Are you Hazrat Khizr (a.s)?’ He said, ‘I am the one who Khizr (a.s) too desires to meet! Don’t you know your own Imam e Zamana (a.s)? ’ Hearing this they advanced swiftly to kiss the feet of the Imam (a.s). But the camel sped away and disappeared from their sight in no time. This was the first time that he had the good fortune of setting my eyes on the Imam (a.s). Later on Sayed Radi ud Deen Taoos had meetings with the Imam (.s) several times.
Another anecdote from the life of Sayed ibne Taoos through which are communicated to us a few utterances of the Imam (a.s). This anecdote has been recorded by several of our later Ulema. In his own words, Sayed Radi ud Deen says:
“Once I went to Samarra for Ziarat. I went to the cellar where the Imam e zamana (a.s) spent some time and then went into hiding. When I went into the cellar I had a meeting with the Imam (a.s). At that moment the Imam (as) was praying:
‘O Allah! These Shias of ours are created from the left over soil of which we are made! Our Shias many a time commit sins depending on our intercession! It is true that there are a lot of Shias who become unmindful and commit taboo acts in hope of our intercession! O Allah, pardon them accepting our intercession on their behalf! They take out Khums. Therefore pardon them if they go astray at certain times! O Allah make the Hell taboo for them! Make them eligible for entry to the Heaven!! O Allah ! Ensure that they and their enemies don’t stand at the same place on the Day of Reckoning!’”
This is the prayer of the Imam e Zamana (a.s) that Sayed Radi ud Deen Taoos himself heard and witnessed him offering..
ANCESTRY & LINEAGE
We have already mentioned about the Taoos family that they claim descent from Imam Hassan (a.s) through his son Hassan e Muthanna. The name of the first of the Taoos family was Abu Abd Allah Mohammed.
It is well known about Abu Abd Allah Mohammed Taoos that over a day and night he would offer a thousand genflections of prayer out of which 500 genuflections used to be for seeking felicity for his parents. It has been the practice of the progeny of the Imams (a.s) to spend a major portion of the days and nights in prayer..
AN INCIDENT ABOUT SAYED RADI UD DEEN IBNE TAOOS AND THE ABBASID CALIPH
The caliph of the time heard about the piety of Abu Abd Allah Taoos, and also made a practical evaluation of this claim, and then wanted to appoint him as the Qazi al Qazaz (Chief Justice) of his realm. It was a very big and important and powerful position those days.Those days the Abbasid Realm was the biggest in the world and the position offered to Abu Abd Allah was so important that he could even give a verdict against the caliph himself, if the circumstances warranted. The caliph therefore, in absolute discretion, wanted to bestow the position to Taoos. The caliph called him to the court and put the proposal about the appointment to him. But Abu Abd Allah politely refused to accept the offer. The caliph asked him why he was turning down the offer? He told th caliph that he had spent 50 years after attaining the age of majority and every day a case comes up to him for a verdict. Every morning, he said, when he woke up from his sleep there is a conflict between his intellect and the psyche. The intellect asked him to shun the world and prepare for the Hereafter and the psyche forced him to forget about the Hereafter, which is nothing but a hear-say, there is no certainty if there is any benefit to be earned in the Hereafter, and to grab the pleasures of the day! He said that all the fifty years he wasn’t able to decide what course to take and wasn’t able to pass a verdict on this very small and simple litigation! In such a situation how would he be able to sit in judgment over important matters of other persons! He suggested to the caliph to appoint such a person to the position of Qazi al Qazat who was really competent to hold it! A time came when Abu Abd Allah was offered another position in the realm. He was asked to be the official Chief of the Clan of the Sayeds. He refused to accept even this position.
AN INCIDENT ABOUT HALAKU KHAN & SAYED RADI UD DEEN IBNE TAOOS
Halaku Khan was annexing town after town those days. He reached near the town of Hilla. We have already mentioned that Sayed Radi ud Deen ibne Taoos belonged to this town. He captured the capital city of Baghdad but spared the important town of Hilla because of the influence that Naseer ud Deen Toosi had over him. Halaku was appointing a governor for every city and he wanted to appoint Sayed Radi ud Deen Taoos as the governor of Hilla. Sayed Radi ud Deen refused to accept the assignment. But his mentor, Naseer ud Deen Toosi forced him to accept it. He told him that discretion required that he accepted to take the responsibility in the interest of the people. He mananged the affairs of the town and made it safe for the inhabitants there. After the Sayed’s death and his son’s death, Halaku did attack the town of Hilla. At that time there were two infant grand-sons, aged 4 and 5 years, of Sayed Radi Ud Deen. Sayed Radi ud Deen Taoos had left such a mark on the mind of Halaku Khan that he appointed the infant grand-sons to govern the town. This was the same Halaku Khan who had no iota of kindlness and compassion in his heart. It is said that once an infant slipped from the arms of his mother and was falling down the hill. Halaku wanted to save the child and wanted to restore it to the mother. As the child was falling, he lofted the sharp edge of his spear that pierced through the body of the infant and handed it over to the mother. One can well imagine the piety and nobility of Sayed Radi ud Deen Taoos that this cruel ruler had great respect and regard for him and went to the extent of appointing his infant grand-sons as governors of an important town in the realm. He also announced that no person belonging to the family of Radi ud deen Taoos should be harmed nor any other person resident of that area. Sayed Radi Ud Deen was such a pious person that he never did anything taboo. He is also known to have direct contact with the Imam e Zamana (a.s) and many a supplications of the Imam (a.s) have reached us through him. Several books mention about his meetings with the Imam (a.s). But once the Imam (a.s) was slightly upset with him because of his small error of judgment (Tark e Aula). The Imam (a.s) reprimanded him for this act. The Sayed writes in one of his own books that once he went to Najaf e Ashraf from Makka, and stayed there for quite a while. During that period one of his brothers saw a dream that Imam e Zamana (a.s) had sent food for him. He ate that food and gave one morsel to his brother as ordered by the Imam (a.s). He says that when he was in Najaf e Ashraf a Sheik Abd al Mohsin had arrived from Karbala and that he had the opportunity of meeting the Imam e Zamana (a.s). He was also bringing a personal message for Sayed Radi ud Deen Taoos from the Imam (a.s). Sayed Radi ud Deen says that when he heard of the arrival of Sheik Abd al Mohsin, from Karbala, he started to search for him. He learnt that the Sheik was staying at the seraglio. Since Sayed Radi ud Deen was himself an eminent scholar, he sent word to Sheik Abd al Mohsin to visit him. The Sheik then went to the place of Sayed Radi ud Deen. Sheik Abd al Mohsin came and he was given a proper reception according to the protocol.and was requested to sit near him. The Sayed asked him if it was true that he carried a message from the Imam (a.s) for him. He said that he was traveling from Karbala to Najaf e Ashraf when, on the way, he met a person with a very radiant face. When he learned that it was the Imam e Zamana (a.s), he fell at his feet and kissed his hands. The Imam (a.s) said, “O Abd al Mohsin! Take a message to my son Sayed Radi ud Deen that the time has come, the time has come, the time has come!” When Abd al Mohsin looked up he saw that the Imam e Zamana (a.s) wasn’t there. He said that he had reached Najaf e Ashraf and was preparing to proceed to Hilla. He said that he was sure that Sayed Radi ud Deen would be in Hilla. But when his messenger gave him the summons, he rushed to meet him. The Sayed asked Abd al Mohsin how he knew that the Imam (a.s) particularly meant the message for him since every member of the Taoos family was called Ibn e Taoos! He replied that his heart knew that the message was only for him. The Sayed said that the message would convey only two things. One could be that the time for the Zahoor (Re-emergence) of the Imam (a.s) was nigh or the other could be that the time for the Sayed’s passing away was near at hand. The truth was that till the end the secret wasn’t revealed. But one can say that within 4 years of the event, Sayed Radi ud Deen passed away. If we accept that 4 years was a period which can be termed as near at hand, then we might accept that the Imam (a.s) had predicted the imminent death of Sayed Radi ud Deen. Otherwise it would be treated as one of the traditions of the Imam (a.s) the purpose of which was not fulfilled. Sayed Radi ud Deen Taoos requested Sheik Abd al Mohsin to stay as his guest rather than departing for his residence. He arranged a comfortable bed for the Sheik and himself retired for sleeping. It was past midnight when Sayed Radi ud Deen normally stood up for the Night Prayer (Tahajjud). A person who had never missed his mandatory and the desirable (Mustaheb) prayers, can never imagine missing the Tahajjud Prayer. He wanted to stand up for the prayer when he saw a dream that he was sitting in the courtyard of his house and Imam Jafar e Sadiq (a.s) had sent a gift for him. He didn’t pay attention to the gift and at that moment he woke up from his sleep. He got up reciting the Kalima. He himself wasn’t able to decipher the purpose of the dream. He was wondering that in his dream the Imam (a.s) had sent him a gift and he wasn’t giving any attention to it. Any way, he prepared for the Tahajjud Prayer and his slave brought a pitcher of water for the ablution and had already left. He tried to do the ablution with the water in the pitcher. But instead of the pitcher going forward for the water to flow out, it was going backwards! It seemed as if someone was pulling the pitcher backwards. Sayed Radi ud Deen felt that perhaps the water was unclean (Najis) that he wasn’t able to perform the ablution with it. He hadn’t mentioned anything beyond this. Perhaps he might have experienced such a thing earlier as well that when the water wasn’t clean he wasn’t able to do the ablution with it. He wasn’t taken aback when this happened and he just called the slave to take away the pitcher and fetch clean water for the ablution. Even the second time the same thing happened. He sat worrying when he fell asleep and saw the Imam (a.s) in his sleep. Sayed Radi ud Deen is the first scholar who had the vision of the Imam (a.s) several times. He could get the vision of the Imam (a.s) whenever he wished. The other scholars who had visions of the Imam (a.s) were Muqaddas Ardbeli and Sayed Mehdi Bahr al Uloom. The Imam e Zamana (a.s) came in the dream of Sayed Radi ud Deen Taoos and told him, “O Ibne Taoos! A messenger of mine came to you and you didn’t have the courtesy of standing up, greeting him and asking him to sit down! You even didn’t give him any gift! The way you treated him was tantamount to your treating me in that manner!” On hearing this Sayed Radi ud Deen woke up from his sleep. He thought that he had made a mistake and the Imam (a.s) was reprimanding him. He went forward in great hurry, picked up the pitcher, moved it forward and the water flowed from the faucet very easily on his hand. He performed the ablution and started his Namaz e Tahajjud. He had hardly performed two genuflections of the Tahajjud when it was dawn and time for the Fajr prayer. He missed the remaining genuflections of the Tahajjud Prayer. It was the first and the last time in his life that Sayed Radi ud Deen had missed a Mustaheb Prayer. Anyway he completed the missed Namaz e Tahajjud, offered the mandatory Fajr prayer and when Sheik Abd al Mohsin awoke from his sleep and completed his prayers. Sayed Radi ud Deen offered to him 21 gold coins. Sheik Abd al Mohsin declined to accept the gift and requested him to give it to some indigent person. He said that he was himself affluent and had a pouch of 100 gold coins with him. Sayed Radi requested him to accept the gift of the 6 coins and leave aside the other 15. After much persuasion he accepted the 6 coins and wanted to return them back to the Sayed. The eyes of Sayed Radi ud Deen watered and he said that it was the command of the Imam (a.s) for giving a gfit to him. When he learnt about the Imam (a.s)’s command, Sheik Abd al Mohsin accepted the gift of the coins. Now it was morning and Sheik Abd al Mohsin had to depart. He made him sit for a while and as commanded by the Imam (a.s) stood up to give due respect to the guest. Sayed Radi ud Deen was met by the Imam (a.s) later on when he expressed his satisfaction that he gave due respect to the person who had come to him to convey the Imam(a.s)’s message.
THE SUPPLICATIONS AND TALISMANS IN SAYED RADI UD DEEN TAOOS’ BOOKS
Sayed Radi ud Deen has written a complete book of supplications and talismans and the prayers that are associated with our 2nd Imam (a.s). One incident is recorded that a person came to Imam Hassan (a.s) and said, “O Master! My neighbor is troubling me much. I have tried very much to bear with him, but there is a limit for everything! Day by day his actions are becoming unbearable.” The Imam (a.s) then prescribed to him a prayer of 2 genuflections and a small supplication to be recited thereafter. The Imam (a.s) asked him to offer the prayer in the night and go back to him the next morning. The man offered the prayer as suggested by the Imam (a.s). As he ended the prayer and the supplication, he heard the sounds of crying from the neighbor’s house. He came to know that the neighbor had demised in a very strange manner. It was told that his head suddenly burst and his end was very torturous. Sayed Radi ud Deen Ibne Taoos reports this incident through his forbears.
THE FELICITY OF DUA E ABRAR
The Dua e Abrar, which is included in many books of supplications, has come to us through Sayed Radi ud Deen Taoos. Sayed Radi ud Deen Taoos records that a friend of his was arrested by the governor of the caliph. He had nothing with him except a small book of supplications. He wasn’t sure if he would be killed or his life spared. He remained incarcerated for many days. He repeatedly appealed to Imam e Zamana (a.s) for succor. One night the Imam (a.s) came in his dream and asked him why he was so much disturbed. He said that the governor had arraigned him and there was no way of release from there. The Imam (a.s) said why he wasn’t reciting the Dua e Abrar. The person said that he was hearing mention of the supplication for the first time. The Imam (a.s) said that the supplication was noted in his book of prayers. The person wondered that he had recited all the prayers in the book more than ten times while he was in that jail. He didn’t recall if Dua e Abrar was noted in that book. The Imam (a.s) reiterated that the supplication was in the book. As soon as the person awoke from his sleep, he took up the book and noticed a lose page with a prayer written on it that starts with:
Allahumma ya arham al Abrar ya Kashif al karbaat
O the One who dispels troubles and removes hardships”
The complete supplication was written on the paper. He was wondering that he had brought only that small book with him and was in solitary confinement all those days and none had access to him. It was a miracle that the paper with the supplication was there in the book. Sayed Radi ud Deen says that the person recited the supplication. The next morning the governor’s messenger came with the orders for his release. He came to know that the governor’s wife had seen Hazrat Amir al Momineen (a.s) in her dream and asked her to tell her husband that he had put his son in confinement who must be released otherwise he will face Allah’s retribution. The governor immediately issued the order of release when his wife related the dream to him. Sayed Radi ud Deen Taoos is the first scholar who included the supplication in his book. Those who are interested in this supplication may refer to the book of Mafateeh. The last incident in this regard that we are mentioning here has two or three important things that stress the popularity of Sayed Radi Ud Deen Taoos among our people and the others. There was a Momin from Egypt who had developed some differences with the governor there. He had invited the wrath of the ruler, and to save his life, he escaped to Baghdad. Then he went to Karbala, Kazimain and in the end to Najaf e Ashraf. Although he had saved himself, his entire family and his assets were in Egypt at the mercy of the ruler there. He was deeply worried. He went to the mausoleum of Hazrat Amir al Momineen (a.s), touched the sarcophagus and pleaded for help to be relieved of the tyranny of the ruler. He saw a dream continuously for five nights. On the first night the Imam (a.s) came in his dream and taught to him a supplication and asked him to prostrate in the following manner after offering the prayer. He was asked to prostrate with his stomach, his chest, nose and the knees touching the ground and recite the supplication in that position. When he awoke after the dream on the first night, he remembered everything but could recall only a few lines of the wording of the long supplication. In the dream on the second night the supplication was repeated and he remembered some more of it. In this manner, by the fifth night, he was able to remember the complete supplication for recitation. This is the same supplication that commences with the following words:
“Allahumma manzal lazi baa-as fala najbe wa man zal lazi saalik fala natih
O Allah! Who is that who called you, and you didn’t respond: Who is who asked for help and you haven’t given!”
On the sixth day the person offered the prayer and recited the supplication. He remained at Najaf e Ashraf for fifteen days. On the fifteenth night the Imam e Zamana (a.s) came in his dream and said, “We have taught to you a supplication and you have recited it. But why are you still staying here? Go to your country.” He told to the Imam (a.s) in his dream, “O master! The ruler there is a tyrant and my enemy. His men are searching for me.” The Imam (a.s) said, “Tell me, why we have taught to you the supplication? You go home now without any fear!” The person started for home with the fear and consciousness that he was heading towards his enemy. When he had covered half the way, he saw a person coming towards him. When he reached near him, he found that the person was one of his neighbors. He asked the person, “Why are you traveling on this way?” He said, “I have come searching you. Your wife and children have sent me to fetch you home.” The person asked him as to how were the conditions in Egypt? The neighbor said, “Some days ago the governor didn’t open the door of his room in the morning. His men broke open the door and found that he way lying dead with his head severed.No one knows how he was killed. But there is good news for you. The new governor has announced many times pardoning you.” The troubles of the person were thus resolved. Radi Ud Deen Taoos was the first scholar who had included this supplication of the Egyptian in his book. Sayed Radi ud deen’s achievement is that he propagated the spiritual knowledge of the Imams (a.s) through his writings. In the year 646 H, after completing his monumental work, Sayed radi ud Deen ibne Taoos breathed his last. He was the most popular and well known person of the family of Taoos. Therefore when any reference is made to Ibne Taoos, it is meant that only Sayed Radi ud Deen Taoos is the subject of the reference.
One should note that three eminent scholars of this clan are known as Ibn e Taoos.
This talk is not on one scholar, but it encompasses a family of erudite scholars! The first name in this family is that of Ibn e Taoos. He wrote the book, “Kitab e Lahoof”, on the tragic events pf Karbala. This book has also been translated as “Tareeq e Hussaini” in Urdu language. This book was written by Sayed Radi Ud Deen Taoos during his early years. This book was written by him when he was still very young. The book isn’t rated fully authentic because the effort was made by the scholar at a very young age.
Also see from Tawoos Family :-SAYED ABD AL KARIM IBNE TAOOS