Extract from the Book A Shiite Encyclopedia by Hassan Aminie


List of Ulamaa/ Jurists & their Work



From Among the Imam


You have learnt from the Eight Discussion that the first one to speak about jurisprudence in Islam was Ali Bin Ali Talib (A.S). He dictated sixty different kinds of studies connected with the Quran. He mentioned that in the Quran there were verses, which abrogated the others and these, which were abrogated (Nasihk and Mansukh); that there were verses clear in their meaning (Muhkam) and others which were not (mutashabeh) and that there were verses which had their particular application and others having general application. These principles were the foundation stone of all discussion relation to this branch of knowledge. Imam Muhammad Al-Baqir (A.S) and Imam Jafar As-Sadiq (A.S) were the foremost after Amir-ul-Muminim (A.S) to open the gate of Principles of Jurisprudence. Imam Shafii came long after them. Both of them explained their companions the most important issues relating of Jurisprudence. Imam Jafar Sadiq (A.S.) threw light on the following issues:


i)                    conditions and pre-requisites of Ijtihad;

ii)                   permission of following another person (Taqlid);

iii)                 denotative value of the apparent meaning words;

iv)                 permissibility of action according to the general and absolute senses, etc.

v)                  permissibility of framing secondary injunctions and finding out secondary rule from the basic principles;

vi)                 action;

vii)               permissibility of reporting the Tradition according to the meaning and not the words (indirect narration);

viii)              un-permissibility of imposing an action upon a person which is far beyond his capacity;

ix)                 obligation to refrain from that which is doubted;

x)                  admissibility of reasoning with reference to a precedent and non-admissibility of analogous inference (guess work( that is Al-Qiyas;


Similarly, both Imam Muhammad Al-Baqir (A.S.) and Imam Jaffar As-Sadiq (A.S) clarified the following issues relating to the principles of Jurisprudence.


i)                    arriving at a decision in case of doubtful despite the absence clear cut information.

ii)                   dealing with contradictory information’s, which issue relates to striking and balance and exercising one’s discretion and preference.


Similarly, Muhammad Al-Baqir (A.S.), Imam Jaffar As-Sadiq (A.S) and Imam Musa Al-Kazim (A.S.) clarified that it is obligatory to refer to the Quran and the Sunnah in order to reduce results and give judgments, as well as that the apparent meaning are sufficient for the sake of reasoning and admissible. Imam As-Sadiq (A.S.) and Imam Al-Kazim (A.S) prohibited the use of analogy and guesswork in arriving at judgments. In the same way, Imam As-Sadiq (A.S.) Imam Ar-Rida declared it permissible to act in accordance with the general and the absolute as well as admissibility of framing secondary rules on the basis of fundamental principles and abstract rules. Imam Ali Al-Hadi (A.S.) and Imam Al-Hassan Al-Askari (A.S.) gave their judgment on the admissibility of one circumstantial evidence information which is authentic.  Similarly, Imam Al-Mahdi (a.j.t.f) declared the admissibility of circumstantial evidence and so on and so forth. These things are dealt with at length in the Eighth Discussion.


Other Than Imams


Some of our contemporary writers have said that the first person to distinguish himself in writing down these discussions in the form of a book was Hishan Bin Al-Hakam a student of Imam Jafar Sadiq (A.S.) who composed a book, titled, Kitab-ul-Alfaz Wa Mabahithiha, which is one of the important discussion of this branch of studies.


Our opinion is that there has been mentioned a book  as referred to above among the books written by Hisham but its topic is not known. It cannot said as to whether this book deals with the discussion of words which belongs to the field of Jurisprudence or not. Nor does the statements of our contemporaries give any indication to this effect. But the correct position si that the first one to put down these discussions to book-form was Yunis Bin Abdur Rahman who was an ally to Yaqtin family. He wrote a book titled Ikhtilaf-ul-Hadith which deals with exactly an issue of principles of jurisprudence that is the question of balancing the views which are contradictory and exercising one’ discretion in giving a judgment. This is a part of the discussions relating to the Principle  of Jurisprudence. He died in the beginning of the third century.


Other notable figures how did work in this field are as described below:


1.                  Ahmad Bin Muhammad Bin Khalid Al-Barqi wrote a book on contradictory opinions and question of giving judgments. He died in 274 A.H.

2.                  Muhammad Bin Abdul Rahman Bin Qabbah Ar-Razi has expressed his ideas on the availability of one piece of evidence, which is quite known. He di8ed in the beginning of the fourth century.

3.                  Muhammad Bin Muhammad Bin An-Numan known as Mufid.


He has a small book on Ilm-ul-Usul which is printed.

4.                  Ash-Sharif Murtada Ilm-ul-Huda Ali Bin Al-Hussain.

Allama has described him in AL-Khullasah as a man of all arts whose position is admitted by all. He was profound in knowledge and different studies, which included the knowledge of Usul-ul-Fiqh (Principles of Jurisprudence) which is a way of Principles of Law (Shariah). His ideas and opinions are quite well known in the books of both the Sunnite and the Shiite writers. He died in 436 A.H..

5.                  Ash-Shaikh abu Jafar Muhammad Bin Al-Hussain At-Tusi.

He is called Shaikh-ut-Tusi or simply as Ash-Shaikh. A number of his books on the Principles are found in print. he died in 460 A.H.

6.                  Sadad-ud-Din Mahmud Bin Ali Al-Humsi was also one of the scholars who were known for knowledge of Usul. He died during the sixth century.

7.                  Al Muhaqqiq Jafar Bin Al-Hassan Bin Yayha bin Said Al-Hilli.

HE is the author of Maarij-ul-Wusul Ila Ilm-il-Usul which has been printed. He also collected the fundamental rule relating to Ilm-ul-Usul in brief in a book form which is first of its kind. He died in 676 A.H.

8.                  Yahya Bin Said Al-Hilli was a cousin of Al-Muhaqqiq Jafar. He wrote Al-Madkhal Fi Usul-il-Fiqh. His death occurred in 690 A.H.

9.                  Al-Allamah Al-Hilli Al-Hassan Bin Yusuf Bin Al-Mutahhar.

He was a pupil of Al-Muhaqqiq. Among his books are An-Nukat-ul-Badiah, Ghayat-ul-Wusul, Mabadi-ul-Wusul, Tahdhib-ul-wusul, Nihayat-ul-Wusul (in two volumes), Nehjul Wusul which is a medium sized book. He died in 726 A.H.

10.              As-Sayyid Amid-ud-Din Abdul Muttalib Bin Muhammad Al-A Raji Al-Hussani was a nephew of Al-Allamah and his pupil. He wrote an explanation on commentary on his uncle’s book Tahdhib-ul-Wusul. He died during eighth century.1.


(1. There are a number of commentaries on aforementioned Tahdhub-ul-Wusul. Among such commentaries is Nihayat-ut-Tagribn Fi Sharh-it Tahdhib in two volumes. I have got a manuscript copy of this book but its first pages are missing. Hence I cannot tell about its author).

11.              Ash-Shaikh-ul-Jalil Muhammad Bin Ali Al-Jurjani was also a pupil ofAl-Allamah. He wrote Ghayat-ul-Badi Fi Sharh-il-Mabadi Fi Usul-il-Fiqh written by his teacher. He wrote this book in the name of An-Naqib Amid-ud-Din Abdul Mutalib Ibn An-Naqib Shams-ud-Din Ali Bin Al-Mukhtar Al-Husani. I have a copy of this book. He died during eighth century.

12.              Ash-Shahid Muhammad Bin Makki Al-Aamili Al\-Jizzini Collected the fundamental rules of Principles of Jurisprudence in a book form. He also composed Kitab-ul-Qawaid Fil Qawaid il-Fiqhiyyah.

13.              Ash-Shaikh Zain-ud-Din Ali Al-Aamili Al-Jabai continued the work started by Ash-Shahid and composed Tamhid-ul-Qawaid. He was also martyred in 966 A.H. and is called Ash-Shahid-uth-Thani.

The lead given by these two martyrs was taken by the following scholars:

14.              Ash-Shaikh Hassan Bin Zain-ud-Din Ash-Shahid uth-Thani Al-Aamili who is known as Khatib-ul-Usuliyyin, wrote al-Maalim Fil Usul. Before these book was written, the people used to study this subject through Sharh-ul-Amidi Alat Tahdhib which has already been mentioned, along with Usul Ibn-il-Hajib and Usul-ul-Adadi. But after its composition, the teaching and learning of this subject was based upon it. He died in 1011 A.H.

15.              Ash-Shaikh Muhammad Bin Ash-Shaikh Hassan Bin Zain-ud-Din was the son of the author of Al-Maalim, as mentioned above, and was one of those persons who wrote commentaries on this book. He died in 1030 A.H.

16.              As-Sayyid Hussain known as Khalifah Sultan wrote a commentary on Al-Maalim he died in 1066 A.H.

17.              Mulla Saleh Al-Mazandrani wrote a commentary on Al-Maalim.

18.              Muhammad Bin Al-Hassan Ash-Shirwani Known as Mulla Mirz wrote another commentary on Al-Maalim. He died in 1099 A.H.1.

19.              Al-Mulla Abdullah At-Tuni.

He wrote Al-Wafiyah Fil Usul, which became very famous and many scholars wrote commentaries on it. He died during the mid-eleventh century.

20.              Ash-Sheikh ul-Baha’I Muhammad Bhin Al-Husain wrote Zubdatul Usul. He died in 1031 AH.

21.              Ash-Sheikh Jawwad Bin Sad ullah Al-Kazmi who is commonly known as Al-Fadil Al-Jawwad was a pupil of Ash-Shaikh ul-Baha’i. He wrote Ghayatul Ma’mul Fi Sharhi Zubdatul Usful. He died during the eleventh century.

22.              Ash-Shaikh Asadullah Bin Ismail At-Tustari Al-Kazami.

He wrote Kashful-Qina Anil Wajuh-I-Hujjiyatul Ijma. In this book he gave a summary of what his predecessors had woitten and supplemented with the contemporary opinions on admissibility of Ijma. He has been followed by those who came after him upto our own age. He died in 1220 AH.

23.              As-Sayyid Muhammad Al-Jawwad Bin Mhammad Al Husaini Al-Aamili An Najafi is the author of Miftah-ul-Kirmah. He also wrote a commentary on Al-Wafiyah by AT-Tuni. He died in 1226 AH.

24.              As-Sayyid Muhsin Al-A’raji Al-Baghdadi, Khatib-ul-Usuliyyin who is also known as Al-Muhaqqiq-ul-Kazimi si the author of Al-mahasul Fil Usul. He also wrote a commentary on Al-Wafiyah of At-Tuni which was titled by him as Al-Wafi. He died in 1226 AH.

25.              Ash-Shaikh Jafar Ibn Ash-Shaikh Khidar An-Najafi.

He briefly dealt with the issues relating to Usul in the beginning of his book Kashf-ul-Ghita Anil Mahasin-sh Shariat-al-Gharra. He died in 1228. AH.

26.              Ash-Sayyid Hussain Bin Abil Hassan Musa Al-Husaini Al-Aamili Ash Shaqrai was the brother of the grandfather of the author of the present work. He was the most famous among the scholars of Usul in Iraq in his age. The scholars of An-Najaf chose him to debate with Mirza A-Qummi on the issue of admissibility of Absolute Probability when the latter visited Iraq and asked for a debate on this issue. He died in 1230 AH.

27.              Al-Mirza Abul Qasim Al-Qummi wrote Qawanin ul-Usul on which people depended for their study of Usul, in addition to Al-Malim. Many commentaries have been written on this book which will be discussed later on. He died in 1233 AH.

28.              Ash-Shaikh Muhammad Taqi Bin Abdur Rahim At-Tehrani Al Hairi.

He wrote a voluminous book on Usul and named it as Al-Hashiyah Alal Maalilm. He died in 1248 AH.

29.              Ash-Shikh Muhammad Husain Bin Abdur Rahim Al-Asfahani Al-Hairi was brother of Ash-Shaikh Muhammad Taqi. He wrote Al-Fusul il Usul. He died in 1261 Ah.

30.              Mirza Abdul Fattah Bin Ali Al-Husani Al-Maraghi.

He was one of the pupils of the sons of Ash-Shaikh Jafar Al-Janaji An-Najafi. He has books on the pattern of Al-Qawaid of Ash-shahid of Tamhid-ul-Qawaid by Ash-Shahid-uth-Thani. He died during the thirteenth century.

31.              Ash-Shkaih Murtada Bin Muhammad Amin At-Tustari Al-Ansari is known as Murabbi-ul-Ulama (Teacher of the Scholars). He wrote a well-known book, titled Ar-Rasail, which is used for teaching of this subject (Usul) along with Al-Maalim an al-Qawanin. He gives a summary of his predecessors in connection with important principles. He has been followed by those who were his juniors. He dealt with the issues of Usul in such a way that he became the guiding soul for all the come later. Many commentaries have been written on this book and have been printed too. Many books have been compiled from his discussion on Usul from which the people have benefited. He died in 1281 AH.

32.              As-Sayyid Mehdi Al-Qazwini Al-Hilli An-Najafi is the author of Talif Fil Usul. He died in 1300 AH.

33.              As-Shaikh Musa Binb Amin Aal Shararah Al-Aamili wrote a poem on the subject which has no parallel. He died in 1304 AH.

34.              Mirza Musa At-Tabrizi is one of the contemporaries. He has written Hashiyah (notes) on the Rasail of Shaikh Murtada, which is quite a voluminous book and has been printed. He died during the fourteenth century.

35.              Mirza As-Sayyid Muhammad Hasan Ash-Shirazi was domiciledin Samara. He was on the most famous teachers of Usul and trained many a scholar. He was himself a pupil fo Ash-Shaikh Murtada. Among his writings is a book Risalah Fil Mushtaqq. He died in 1312 AH.

36.              Mirza Habib Ullah Ar-Rishti was apupil of Shaikh Murtada. He was a very famous teacher of Usul and wrote a book named Badai-ul-Usul. He died in 1313 AH.

37.              Mirza Shaikh Muhammad Hasan Al-Ashtiyani At-Tehrani was a pupil of Shaikh Murtada. He wrote a commentary on Ar-Rasil which has been printed. He died in 13232 AH.

38.              Ash Shaikh mulla Kazim Al-Khurasani An-Najafi was our teacher and our Shaikh. He was one of the most famous teachers of Usul in our age. He polished the subject and simplified it. He has written a commentary on the Rasail of Shaikh Murtada as well as Al-Kifayah Fil Usul in which he treated all the necessary topics of the subject, with the result that the students and teachers bank upon it alongwith Al-Maalim, Qawanin and Rasail. Nowadays, Al-Qawanin has been left and the study of Usul is confined to three books, namely, Al-Maalim, Ar-Rasail and Al-Kifayah. He died in 1329 AH.

39.              Ash-Shaikh Mahdi Al-Khalisi Al-Kazami was one of the pupils of Shaikh Mulla Kazim Khurasani. He wrote a commentary on Al-Kifayah and has written on many subjects in Usul. He died in 1343 AH.

40.              As-Sayyid Abul Hassan Asfahani

41.              Ash-Shaikh Mirza Hussain An-Naini

42.              Ash-Shaikh Abdul karim Al-Yazdi

43.              Ash-Shaikh Diya-ud-Din Al-Iraqi An-Najafi was a student of Shaikh Mulla Kazim and was a very famous teacher. He has written a commentary on Al-Kifayah. He died in 1361 AH.

`                                   In addition to those mentioned above, many scholars of our age as well as in the past have written books which are numerous and printed. To estimate the work done by the Shiite scholars in this field is difficult, not to speak of enumerating the scholars and teachers on the subject.


Shi’ite Jurists and authors on jurisprudence

and the traditions.


From among the companions


The first and foremost among the companions of the \Prophet who has acquired the knowledge of Jurisprudence was the Imam of the Shiites and their Chief Amir-ul-Mumiin Ali Bin Abi Talib (A.S.).


Similarly Sayyidah Fatimah Az-Zahra (S.A.) and her two sons Imam Al-Hassan (A.S.) and Imam Al-Hussain (A.S.) were profoundly accomplished in this respect. What has resulted from their talks about the religious studies is sufficient to fill volumes. It would suffice to refer to the speeches made by Her (S.A.) after the death of Her (S.A) Father – The Prophet (S.A.W.W.)  - which contain a lot of material about the philosophy of Shara and religious injunctions. You have learnt during the Eight Discussions about Mushaf-o-Fatimah (S.A.) or the Book of Fatimah (S.A.) as well as that Imam Al-Hassan (A.S.) and his Father Ali Bin Abi Talib (A.S.) were the first to write about such knowledge.


Then comes the name of Ibn Abbas who is usually called the Pontiff of Ummah and the Jurist of the Community. He is always referred to in the matters relating to the traditions, Jurisprudence and Religious Injunctions. He died in 67 A.H.


Next to come are Salman-Al-Farsi and Abu Dhar Al-Ghaffari. They were the first to collect the Traditions and classify them under different headings. When discussed as to who was the first to write a book of Islam, we quoted form Ibnm Shahr Ashub that the pioneer in this respect was Ali Bin Abi Talib (A.S.) who was followed by Salman, Abu Dhar, Al-Asbagh Bin Nabatah, Abdullah Bin Abi Rafe and Imam Zainul Aabidin A.S. (who wrote As-Sahifa Al-Kamilah) respectively. To Salman is attributed a book of Traditions named as Al-Jathalique. Ash Shaikh has said in his Al-Fahrist, He has reported about Al-Jathalique the Byzantine who was sent by Byzantine King to Madinah after the death of the Prophet. Ash-Shaikh has then given this authorities and evidence to authenticity of the book. According to Ma’alim-ul-Ulama Salman reported about Al-Jathalique in this book. Similarly, Abu Dhar has a book like Al-Khutbah to his credit in which he explained the situation after the death of the Prophet (S.A.W.W.) Ash-Shaikh in Al-Fahrist and Ibn Shahr Ashub in Al-Ma’alim have said that Jundub Bin Junadah Abu Dhar Al-Ghaffari has a Khutab to his credit in which he explained the situation and things after the death of the Prophet (S.A.W.W.). Ash-Shaikh has mentioned the authority to the authenticity of this statement. Abu Dhar died in 31 A.H. while Salman passed in 35 A.H.


Abu Rafe Ibrahim or Aslam, who was a freed slave of Prophet (S.A.W.W.) is also counted among such scholars. An-Najashi has said while discussing the first groupt of the Shi’ite writer, Abu Rafe was in Mecca in the past and then he migrated to Madinah where he remained attached to the Prophet (S.A.W.W) and saw what the latter saw and did. Then he became a companion of Ali Bin Abi Talib (A.S.) after the death of the Prophet (S.A.W.W.). HE was among the best of the Shiites, participated in all the battles on the side of Ali Bin Abi Talib (A.S.) and was in charge of the treasury during his Caliphate in Kufa. An-Najashi further says that Abu Rafe was the author of a book containing Sunun, injunctions and different problems. Then he mentions the authorities for his statement leading back to Muhammad Bin Ubaidullah Bin Abi Rafe to his father and then to his grandfather Abi Rafe and then to Ali Bin Abi Talib (A.S.). An-Najashi then gives an idea of the book discussing it chapter by chapter, which As-Salat (Prayers(, Fasting, Hajj,. Zakat  and miscellaneous problems. He was therefore the first one to collect the Traditions and classify them under various headings. However, who collected all the traditions for ht first itme belonged to the third century as has been mentioned in Tadrib-ur-Rawa by As-Suyuti inb Hjar however says that the task of collecting the tradition was undertaken for the time of Muhammad Ibn Shahab Az-Zahri under the order of Umar Bin Abdul Aziz who became a Caliph in 98 A.H. and died in 111 A.H.


According to the reports of Ibn Hajar, Abu Rafe died in the early phase of the Caliphate of Ali Bin Abi Talib (A.S.).

From the tabi’ites and their Followers.


Adh-Dhahabi, who is not a Shi’ite, has said in his book Mizan-ul-I’tadal that the Shi’ism spread among the Tabi’ites and their followers to a very great extent. He has said during the life account of Aban Bin Taghlab, on the authority of person like Ahmad Bin Hambal, Ibn Mu’in and Abu Hatim. One  may ask how the trust could be reposed in those who created new things (in religion). The answer to this question is that Bid’at (innovation) is too small hitting like exaggerated Shi’ism or Shi’ism without exaggeration. It does not affect, because Shi’ism was very much common among the Tabi’ites and their followers despite thir religiousness, piety and truthfulness. If we reject the Traditions and report given by such person (because of their being Shi’ites) the most of the sayings of the Prophet (S.A.W.W.) will have to be discarded, which will of course be a bigger Bid’at….. Now this is a testimony of Great Traditionalist to the effect that the Shi’ites distinguished themselves among the Tabi’ites and their followers in guarding the saying of the Prophet. Had others also done the same and reported the Traditions as they did, the rejection of their reports would not amount to giving up the major portion of the Traditions. The fact is that the four Imams and leading traditions received a lot from Shi’ite jurists. Imam Abu Hanifah, for example, received information from Imam Ja’far Sadiq (A.S.). Ibrahim Bin Muhammad Bin Sam’an Al-Madani Al-Slami (An ally of Banu Aslam) was the teacher of Imam Ash-Shafi’i and was as shi’ite. Imam Ahmad Bin Hanbal got his training and education at the hands of Muhammad Bin Fudail Bin Ghazwan Ad-Dabiyy who was a Shi’ite as discussed under the heading of the recitors of the Quaran and will again be discussed under the heading of Jurists. Ubaidullah Bin Abi Musa Al-Abasi  Al Kufi was the teacher and Shaikh of Imam Al-Bukhari. He was also a Shi’ite as evidenced by As-Sam’ani in Al-Ansab, Adh-Dhahabi in Al-Mukhtasir Mizan-ul-I’tidal and Tadhkiratul Huffaiz, the author of Duwal-ul-Islam, Ibn-ul-Athir in Al-Ansab, Abu Daud, Ibn Sad, Ibn Habban, Yaqub Bin Sufyan, Abu Muslim Al-Baghdadi, Al Hafiz Ibn Ul-Qane, As-Saji and others.


Shi’ite books of traditions numbering 6600


The earlier Shi’ites belonging too the Athna ashariyyah group who were contemporaries to the Imams, from Ali Bin Abi Talib (A.S.) to the time of Imam Al-Hassan Al-Askari (A.S.) compiled 6600 books of the Traditions through the agency of Imams from the Ahl-Al-Bait. These books are mentioned in those relating to Rijal (biographies) and have been recorded by As-Shaikh Muhammad Bin Al-Hassan Bin Al-Hurr Al-Aamili, belonging to thirteenth century, in the fourth note of his book Al-Wasa’il. He got the names of these books from the accounts of their authors scattered in various other books. He collected what the authors of Rijal had recorded and the number came upto 6600. having reached this point of discussion, we would like to remind the reader that these books contain 400 volumes on the subject of Usul (Principles of Jurisprudence)( and four big selections. If this is against what we are following in distribution of these authors according to their groups, it is because of the fact that we do not like to make our discussion of the books of the Traditions disrupted; we rather like it to be in one place and complete.


Four Hundred Books Of Usul


Among these 6600 books, 400 were distinguished for their treatment of Usul which are known to the Shiite as Al-Usul-ul-Araba Miah. Ash-Shaikh Al-Mufid has said. The Imamite composed four hundred books which are named as Usul during the period from the life time of Imam Ali Hin Abi Talib A.S. to that Imam Al-Sasan Al-Askari. The meaning of Usul they say is that these books belong to the origin (Asl). Similarly At-Tabrisi has said in A’lam-ul-Wara that four hundred books were compiled from the replies given by Imam Jafar Sadiq A.S. These books are known as Usul and have been reported by his companions and the companions of his father Imam Muhammad Al-Baqir. According to Al-Muhaqqiq, the author of Al-Mutabar, that the number of books compiled from the replies given by Imam Jafar Sadiq A.S. to various questions is four hundred, which are named Usul.


What Al-Mufid has said, as referred to above, indicates that four hundred Usul have been reported from all the Imams, while what At-Tabrisi, Al-Muhaqqiq and Ash-Sahid have said, shows that these books were solely reported from Imam Jafar Sadiq A.S. It is possible to compromise between this. There might be Usul based upon the reports of Imam Jafar Sadiq A.S. and another collection based upon the report of all the Imams.



Now we shall deal with individuals as below; starting with those from the Tabi’ites:


1.                              Ali Bin Abi Rafe:

He was a freed salve of the Prophet (SAWW) and a companion of Amir-ul-Momineen Ali Bin Abi Talib (A.S.). He was the secretary and treasurer of the latter. An-Najashi has said during his discussion of the first group of the Shi’ite authors, after giving an account of Abi Rafe who had himself compiled a book on Sunun, Religious Injunctions and problem. Ibn Abi Rafe wrote another book. His full name is Ali Bin Abi Rafe. He was a Tabi’ite and one of the chosen Shiites. He was a companion of Amir-ul-Momineen Ali Bin Abi Talib (A.S.) and his secretary. He gathered a lot and collected a book on the various branches of Jurisprudence Keeping this statement in view we can say that Ali bin Abi Rafe was the pioneer of writing a book on Jurisprudence and classifying the subject under various headings. As-Suyuti has said in Al-Awail that ht first one to write a book on jurisprudence after the first century of Abu Hanifah. But Ali Bin Rafe was during the time of Amir-ul-Momineen Ali Bin Abi Talib (A.S.) that is during first half of the first century or before the birth of Imam Abu Hanifah. He died during the first century.


2.                  Ubaidullah Bin Abi Rafe:

He compiled a book on the judgments of Amir-ul-Momineen Ali Bin Abi Talib (A.S.). This book has been mentioned by Ash-Shaikh in Al-Fahrist. He has also quoted the authorities who are Muhammad Bin Ubaidullah Bin Abi Rafe from his father Ubaidullah Bin Abi Rafe who got from his father Abi Rafe who in turn received it directly from Amir-ul-Momineen Ali Bin Abi Talib (A.S.). He is also among the pioneers who wrote on jurisprudence. We have already briefly discussed Abi Rafe and his two sons. Ubaidullah Bin Abi Rafe died during the mid-first century


3.                  Ashagh Bin Nabatah Tabi’I:

According to An-Najashi, he was a very close friend and companion of from Amir-ul-Momineen Ali Bin Abi Talib (A.S.) and lived after His martyrdoms. An-Najashi has reported about his oath given to Al-Ashtar and his will to his son Muhammad, along with the authorities in support of these two documents.


He wrote a book abut novelties of the judgments and orders given by from Amir-ul-Momineen Ali Bin Abi Talib (A.S.).This book has been reported by Muhammad bin Ali Bin Ibrahim Bin Hashim Al-Qummi from his father and grandfather who received it from Muhammad Bin Walid who in turn got it from Muhammad Bin Al-Furat. The later received it from the author Asbagh Bin Nabatah – himself. We have got a manuscript copy of this book. He died during the mid-first century.


4.                  Rabi’ah Bin Sami:

An-Najashi has described him in the beginning of his book as belonging to the first group of the Shiite writers. He has also mentioned that Rabiah compiled a book on Zakat-un-Niam which was narrated to him by Amir-ul-Momineen Ali Bin Abi Talib (A.S.). He has also quoted the authorities in support of this statement. Rabiah died during the first century.


5.                  Yu’la Bin Murrah Tabi’I:

He compiled a booklet which was narrated to him by Amir-ul-Momineen Ali Bin Abi Talib (A.S.). An-Najashi has mentioned about it in his book. He died during the first century.


6.                  Al-Harithy Al-Awar Al-Hamadani Tabi’I:

He was one of the companions of Amir-ul-Momineen Ali Bin Abi Talib (A.S.). He compiled a book in which reported those matters which Amir-ul-Momineen Ali Bin Abi Talib (A.S.) told the Jew. Ash-Shaikh At-Tusi has mentioned the authorities for this book in his Al-Fahrist. He died during the first century.


7.                  Maitham Bin Yahya At-Tammar Al-Kufi:

He was one of the closest companions of Amir-ul-Momineen Ali Bin Abi Talib (A.S.) with whom he used to share his secrets. He composed abook on the Traditions from which Ash-Shaikh At-Tusi, Al-Kishi and At-Tabari (in Bisharat-ul-Mustafa) usually quoted. He was assassinated in 60 AH.


8.                  Abdullah Bin Al-Hurr Al-Ja’fi Al-Kufi the poet

He is also known as Ash-Sha’ir ul-Fatik, has been mentioned by An-Najashi as belonging to the first group of Shi’ite authors. He compiled a book in which he reports which he got from Amir-ul-Momineen Ali Bin Abi Talib (A.S.).


9.                  Abu Sadiq Sulaim Bin Qais Al-Hilali

He was the companion of Amir-ul-Momineen Ali Bin Abi Talib (A.S.). he has been mentioned by An-Najashi among the first group of the Shiite authors. He also mentions about his book along with its authorities. He also mention about his book along with its authorities we have to add that Sulaim Bin Qais reports in this book what he learnt from  Amir-ul-Momineen Ali Bin Abi Talib (A.S.). and other prominent companions of Prophet (SAWW). Ash-Shaikh Abu Abdullah Muhammad Bin Ibrahim Bin Jafar Al-Katib-un-Nu’mani says in his Kitab-ul-Ghaibah, in which many Traditions have been quoted through Sulaim bin Qais, as follows:


All the Shiites who served the cause of knowledge and reported through the Imams are unanimous on the point that the book of Sulaim Bin Qais Al-Hilali is one of the basic books of Usul which have been reported by the scholars and Traditionalists carrying the Traditions of Ahl-Al-Bait (A.S) It is also the oldest of all because every tradition that has been collected in it, has directly been taken from the Prophet (SAWW) Amir-ul-Momineen Ali Bin Abi Talib (A.S.), Al-Miqdad, Salman Al-Farsi and Abu Dhar or those followed the path chosen by them who had seen the Prophet (SAWW) Amir-ul-Momineen Ali Bin Abi Talib (A.S.) and heard Them, who are the origins to whom the Shi’ites refer and on whom they depend. He died in 75 AH.


10.              Imam Zainul Abidin Ali Bin Al-Husain (A.S.) was the Imam of his age and leader of the Muslim in the matters relating to jurisprudence and religious injunctions and guided them through his words and actions. He passed in 94 AH.


11.              Sa’id Bin Musaib Tabii was a companion of Imam Zainul Abidin. It is also said about him that he was a companion of Imam Ali Bin Abi Talib (A.S.) and had participated in all the battles of his side. He reported from Him and Ibn Abbas Ibn Hajar has said in Tahdhib-ut-Tahdhib, on the basis of a report from Imam Muhammad Al-Baqir taken through Ibn-ul-Madini, that the Imam said, There is none among the Tabiites who has wider knowledge than (Said Bin Musaib). In my eyes he is the most competent person among the Tabiites. As the Ibn Hajar, he is one of those scholars who are trusted of the jurists. According Al-Mukhtasar of Adh-Dhahabi, he (Sa’id Bin Musaib?) was the Chief of the Tabiites, his arguments were thorough. He was a jurist who had fame and was on the top both in knowledge as well as actions. He died in 94 AH.


12.              Abu Abdur-Rahman Abdullah Bin Habib As-Salimi has been mentioned among the reciters of Quran. He was a close friend of Amir-ul-Muminin A.S. Ibn Qutaibah has said about him that jurisprudence (Al-Fiqh) has been taken from him. He died in 105 AH.


13.              Imam Muhammad Al-Baqir (A.S)

During his time, the number of Shi’ite reporters and writers increased. It also happened during the time of his son Imam Jafar Sadiq (A.S.). only Jabir Bin Yazid Al-Ja’fi alone reported seventy thousand traditions from him which he narrated on the authority his ancestors and the Prophet (SAWW) Himself. He passed away in 113 AH.


Among the followers of the followers (Tabi’it Tabi’in) and the latter generations, they were.


1.         Jabir Bin Yazid Al-Ja-fi, as has already been said, reported seventy thousand Traditions. He used to say, I have fifty thousand traditions out of which I have not reported any and all of them are from the Prophet (SAWW) through the agency of Ahl-Al-Bait (A.S.). It means that the thing, which checked him from reporting those Traditions might have been the fact that some weak-minded people could not bear them and would have belied him and this attitude would have spread to most people.


            He died in 127 AH


2.         Al-Hafiz Al-Muhaddith Al-Aabid Mansur Bin Mutamar Al-Kufi. He died in 132 AH.


3.         Aban Bin Taghlab complied Kitab-ul-Fad’il which is counted among the basic and fundamental books (Usul of the Shi’ites. An-Najashi has said about him, He was well versed in every branch of knowledge. He has included Jurisprudence and Traditions in his statement. Ash-Shaikh has said in his Al-Fahrist that he was a noble jurist. He reported thirty thousand Traditions from Imam Jafar Sadiq (A.S.) as has already been mentioned. He died in 141 AH.


4.                  Abu Abdullah Abdul Muminin Bin Al-Qasim Bin Qais Bin Qahad Al-Ansari Al-Kufi. He died in 147 AH.


5.                  Imam Jafar Bin Muhammad As Sadiq (A.S.)

During his times, the number of people reporting from him as well as that of authors increased. No one from among the ahl-al-bait (A.S.) has been so reported from as he, so much so that Al-Hasan Bin Ali Al-Washa has said, I met 900 Shaikhs in the Mosque of Kufa, every one of them saying, Jafar Bin Muhammad told me, only one reporter, Aban Bin Taghlab alone reported thrity thousand traditions from him. Al-Hafiz Ibn-ul-Uqdah prepared a special book in which very authentic reporters were included to report Traidtion through Imam Jafar Sadiq 9A.S.). THE number of such reporters was 4000. Similarly, 400 books were compiled from the replies he gave to different questions. These 400 books are known Usul Arab’Miah, as has already been mentioned.


He passed away in 148 AH.


6.                  Sulaiman Bin Mahran Al-A’mash.

Ibn Qutaibah has mentioned him in Al-Maarif as one of the Traditionalists and Reciters. He has said that he was more occupied with the Traditions and less with Recitation of the Quran. At another place, Ibn Qutaibah has mentioned him as a Shi’ite. He died in 148. AH.


7.                  Abu Ubaidah Al-Hida Ziyad Bin Isa. He died before 148 AH1


8.                  A’yun Family

Ibn-un-Nadim has mentioned in his Al-Fahrist during his account of Shi’ite authors and Traditionalists and their books that Zararah Bin A’yun Bin Sanbas (or Sansan) whose name was Abd Rabbeh was one of the most prominent Shiite personalities insofar as Jurisprudence, Traditions, Al-Kalam and adherence to the Shi’ite creed is concerned. Similar was the case with his brother Hamran Bin Ayun his son Hamza bin Hamzran and Muhammad Bin Hamran; Bakir Bin Ayun, Abdul Malik Bin Ayun and his son Daris Bin Abdul Malik (who was companion of Imam Muhammad Baqir A.S.) the sons of Zararah (who were the companions of Imam Jafar As-Sadiq (A.S.). Similarly, Ubaid Bin Zararah reported Traditions from Zararah Bin Ayun.


These twelve persons belonged to one family. Zararah Bin Ayun died in 150 A.H.


9.                  Abu Hamza Ath-Thamali Thabit Bin Dinar is known for his reporting. He was a companion of Imam Zainul Abidin (A.S.), Imam Muhammad Al-Baqir (A.S.) and Imam Jafar As-Sadiq (A.S.). He remained alive for a short while during the period of Imam Musa Al-Kazim (A.S.) he died in 150 A.H.


10.              Muhammad Bin Muslim At-Taifi was one of the prominent Shiite jurists and traditionalists. He died in 150 AH.


11.              Abu Basir Yahya Bin Al-Qasim Al-Asadi (an ally of Banu Asad).


He reported traditions from imam Muhammad Al-Baqir (A.S.), Imam Jafar As-Sadiq (A.S) and Imam Musa Al-Kazim. He died in 150 or 151 AH.


12.              Muhammad Bin Ishaq Bin Yassar was an author of Sirat (biography of the Prophet SAWW) and Maghazi (accounts of battle). Ibn-ul-Madini has said reporting to the traitions of the Prophet SAWW rests upon twelve persons and (Muhammad bIn Ishaq) he is one of them. Al-Khastib has testified his being a Shiite in Tarikhe Baghdad, the account of which will come under the heading of historians. He died in 150 AH.


13.              Abu Ali Ubaidullah Bin Ali Abi Shubah.

An-Najashi says, Abi Shubah family is counted among the Shiite. Their grandfather Abu Shubah reported Traditions from Imam Al-Hassan (A.S.) and Imam Hussain (A.S). All of them were trusted in what they said and were referred to. Ubaidullah was the eldest and their most prominent figure. He is the author of a book about which it is said that Ubaidullah gave to Imam Jafar As-Sadiq (A.S.) who revised it.

Al-Barqi has said in his Rijal that Ubaidullah wrote a book, which was the first one among the Shiites.


He died during the mid-second century.


14.              Mawiyah Bin Ammar Ad-Dahani is the author of a number of books on jurisprudence and traditions, which has been mentioned by Ash-Shaikh At-Tusi in Al-Fahrist and by An-Najashi with their authorities. He died in 175 AH.


15.              Imam Musa Al-Kazim (A.S.) Bin Imam Jafar As-Sadiq (A.S.)

His companions composed book in various branches of religious studies, which they based upon the knowledge they received from him. The Shiites have quoted them along with their authorities going back to the original reporter and prominent persons have included them in collections. He passed away in 183 AH.


16.              Ibrahim Bin Muhammad Bin Abi Yahya Al-Madani who was a freed slave of Aslum Bin Afaa the Shaikh of Imam Ash-Shafii. He was a companion of imam Muhammad Al-Baqir (A.S.) and Imam Jafar Sadiq (A.S.). Ash-Shaikh has said in Fahrist that he wrote a book in a number of Chapters relating to Halal and Haram. 1 it has been reported from Imam Jafar As-Sadiq (A.S.). Ash-Shaikh has quoted the authorities too. He died in 184 AH.


17.              Muhammad Bin Qais Al-Bajli wrote a book, which he has reported, from Imam Ali Bin Abi Talib (A.S.). He was not living during the life of Imam (A.S.) but belonged to the period of Imam Muhammad Al-Baqir (A.S) and Imam Jafar As-Sadiq (A.S). An-Najashi says that he is the author of a well-known book on al-Qadaya (Judgments). Similarly, Ash-Shaikh has said in his Al-Fahrist that Muhammad Bin Qais composed a book on the Judgment of Imam Ali (A.S). He died in151 AH.


18.              Nasr Bin Nasior Al-Bahrani is one of the oldest reporter of the traditions. He has reported from Jabir Bin Abdullah Al-Ansari through his father.


19.              Al-Hafiz Al-Mudaddith Abu Abdur-Rahman Muhammad Bin Fudail Bin Ghhazwan Ad-Dabiy (Ally of the Dabi Famil) was the teacher of Imam Ahmad Bin Hanbal. He died in 195 AH.


20.              Yunus bin Abdur-Rahman was an ally of Yaqtim family and companion of imam Musa Al-Kazim A.S. Ibn-un-Nadim has said in his Al-Fahrist He was the scholar of his age. He wrote and compiled many books on Shi’ism. Ibn-un-Nadim has mentioned his books on jurisprudence and the Tradition. He died in 208 AH.


21.              Ahmad Bin Muhammad Bin Abi Nasr Al-Bizintini has been mentioned by Ibn-un-Nadim as one of the Shiite Jurists and Traditionalists. He has also named his books. He died in 221 AH.





            They are eighteen from among the companions and friends of various Imams who became famous in the field of Jurisprudence and the Traditions during the period extending from the late first century to the early third century.


            These persons were called by this names because, as Al-Kishi has claimed, there is a general concurrence of opinion among the Shiites to accept it as correct which they correct, to affirm their ideas and to the companions of Imam Muhammad Baqir (A.S.), Imam Jafar As-Sadiq (A.S.) and Imam Ali Ar-Rida (A.S.) among them. We shall describe them here as Al-Kishi has done and shall not give their account according to the group they fall in lest the account might be disjointed.


Al-Kishi, who is one of the third century scholars, has given the names in his book of Rijal as given below:


Jurists from among the companions of Imam Muhammad Al-Baqir (A.S) and Imam Jafar As-Sadiq (A.S.)


There is general agreement among the Shiites to the effect that the following companions of Imam Muhammad Al-Baqir (A.S) and Imam Jafar As-Sadiq (A.S.) should be considered as correct and that they are Jurists in the real sense. According to this opinion the most accurate and efficient jurists from among the ancients were these persons:


i.                     Zararah

ii.                   Ma’ruf Bin Kharbudh

iii.                  Burid

iv.                 Abu Basir Al-Asadi

v.                  Al-Fudail Bin Yassar

vi.                 Muhammad Bin Muslim At-Taiffi


According to another version, Abu Basir Al-Muradi has been mentioned in place of Abu Basir Al-Asadi. His full name was Kaith Bin Al-Bakhtari.


Jurists from among the companions of Imam Jaffar As-Sadiq (A.S.).


In addition to the six mentioned above, there is a general agreement about the following six persons to consider as correct what they correct, affirm what they say and accept them to be Jurists.


i.                     Jamil Bin Durraj;

ii.                   Abdullah Ibn Maskan;

iii.                  Abdullah Bin Bakir;

iv.                 Hammad Bin Isa;

v.                   Hammad Bin Uthman;

vi.                 Aban Bin Uthman;


It has been said that in the opinion of Abu Ishaq Al-Faqih, whose name is Tahlabah Nin Maimun that the most efficient accomplished among these six was Jamil Bin Durraj who was the youngest of the companions of Jaffar As-Sadiq (A.S.)


Jurists among the companions of Imam Musa Al-Kazim (A.S.)and Imam Ali Ar-Rida (A.S.)


            All our friends have agreed upon the fact that there are six more persons, in addition to those already described above, who should be accepted as jurists and whose opinions should be affirmed. These are:

a)                  Younis Bin Abdur-Rahman;

b)                  Safwan Bin Yahya Bayya As-Sabari;

c)                  Muhammad Bin Abi Umair;

d)                  Abdullah Bin Al-Mughirah;

e)                  Al-Hassan Bin Mahbub;

f)                    Ahmad Bin Muhammad Bin Abi Nasr.


Some people have given the name of Al-Hassan Ali Bin Faddal in place of Al-Hassan Bin Muhbub. Some other have given the name of Faddalah Bin Ayub in place of Al-Hassan Bin Muhbub. Another group replaces the name of Faddalah Bin Ayub by that Uthman Bin Isa. They all agree on the names of Younus Bin Abdur Rahman and Safwan Bin Yahya.


Having given this note on the Ashab-ul Ijma’, we continue discussion of other jurists who came later. They are;

1.                  Imam Ali Bin Musaa Ar-Rida


When he passed by Naishpur on his way to Khurasan, he was met by Abu Zarah Ar-Razi and Muhammad Bin Aslam At-Tusi, who were from among the greatest Muslim scholars of their ages. They were accompanied by a huge procession of scholars and the Traditionalists. They requested him to tell them some Traditions. He therefore dictated to them while riding a Tradition of ‘golden link’ 1. At that a count was made of the people who had pens and inkpots and were writing that Tradition. They were twenty thousand. According to another version, their number came up to twenty five thousand less one. The persons who were taking the dictation were Abi Zaraah and Muhammad Bin Aslam.


Ibn-ul-Athir has mentioned Imam Rida in Jam-ul-Usul as the Mujaddid (renovator) of Imamite creed in the early second century. He passed in 203 AH


2.                  Muhammad Bin Masud Al-Ayyashi


Ibn-un-Nadim has said that he was a Shiite Imamite jurist and distinguished himself in the field of knowledge during his age. He wrote more than two hundred treatises on various branches of knowledge including jurisprudence and the Traditions. He died during the third century.


3.                  Muhammad Bin Umar A-Waaqidi


According to Ibn-un-Nadim. He had Shiite tendencies and was well aware of the difference of opinion among the people in matters relating to the traditions, Jurisprudence and religious injunctions. He wrote a book Kitab-ul-Ikhtilaf dealing with the difference between the people of Kufa and Madinah on various issues of Jurisprudence. He died in 207 AH.


4.                  Safwan Bin Yahya Al-Bajli


An-Najashi says that he wrote thirty books as said by our friends. He mentions a book among his writing dealing with the order of writing of the books on jurisprudence. He died in 210 AH.


5.                  Abu Muhammad Abdullah Bin Al Mughirah Al-Bajli Al-Kufi


According to An-Najashi’s report, he wrote thirty books including one on Jurisprudence. He died during the third century.


6.                  Abu Muhammad Bin Ubaidullah Bin Musa Bin Abi Mukhtar Al-Kufi Al-Abasi

Ash-Shakih has mentioned his name among the personalities of the age of Imam Jafar Sadiq (A.S). Adh-Dhahabi says in Al-Mukhtasir: He is a Hafiz and one of the great figures as far as Shi’ism and innovations are concerned. He is dependable and trustworthy (*in reporting Traditions). Ibu Hajar says, He is a traditionalist of Kufa, a Hafiz of Quran, great worshipper but a Shiite. Ibn Qutaibah has mentioned him in Al-Maarif among the Traditionalists and the Reciters of Quran who was more inclined towards the Traditions. He was a Shiite and this is why he reported such traditions, which were weak and unacceptable. Hence, he became a ‘weak’ reporter of the Traditions in the opinion of a group of people. He begin a Shiite has been affirmed by Ibn-ul-Athir and As-Samani in Kitab-ul-Ansab and others.


He died in 213 AH.


7.                  Imam Muhammad Bin Ali Al-Jawwad


He asked the Qaid-ul-Qudat Yahaya Bin Aktham certain questions on Jurisprudence in the presence of Al-Mamun and made him completely cornered, in replying them.


He passed away in 220 AH.


8.                  Abu Ali Al-Hassan Bin Mahbub As-Sarrad.


Ash-Shaikh has said in Al-Fahrist that he wrote a book Kitab-ul-Mashaikhan in which he discussed punishments, blood-money, obligations, marriages and divorces. Ibn-un-Nadim has added one more topic, i.e. emancipation. He died in 224 AH.


9.                  Imam Ali Bin Muhammad Al-Hadi (A.S.) passed in 254 AH.


10.              Imam Al-Hassan Al-Askari Bin Imam Ali Al-Hadi passed away in 260 AH.


11.              Al-Fadi Bin Shadhain Naishapuri


Ash-Shaikh has mentioned him in his Alfahrist as a Jurist. An-Najashi says, He is dependable in reporting of the Traditions and occupies a prominent position among our companion jurists. Al-Kajj has said that he wrote 180 books. He died in 260 A.H.


12.              Abul Hassan Ali Bin /Muhammad Bin Shirah Al-Qashani.


According to An-Najashi, he compiled a book Kitab-ul-Jame deaing with jurisprudence. He has also given the authorities supporting this statement. He died during the third century.


13.              Ahmad Bin Muhammad Bin Khalid Al-Barqi


14.              Ibrahim Him Muhammad Bin Said Ath-Thaqafi Al-Kufi Al-Asfahani.


Ash-Shaikh and An-Najashi both have mentioned among his works two books of Jurisprudence – Al Jame Al Kabir and Al-Jame As-Saghir. An-Najashi says that he reason why he left Kufa was that he had written a book in praise of the Ahl-Al-Bait (A.S) titled Kitab-ul-Marrifah. The Kufities respected him very much. They suggested to him that he should give up the idea of taking that book out. He asked them. What country is the most hostile towards the Shiites? He was told that it was Asfahan. He took an oath that he would not read it to anyone except in that city. His oath was the result of his confidence in the accuracy in what he had reported. He therefore left for Asfahan and reported his work in that city. He died in 283 AH.


15.              Muhammad Bin Ibrahim Bin Hubbun Al-Hajjari Al Andulsi.


According to Tadhkiratul Huffaz, he was a Hafiz and Traditionalist from Andulus and was among the great personalities of his age, but he was a Shiite. He died in 205 AH.


16.              Al-Hassan Bin Abi Aquil Al-Ammani.


He was the first to polish up the science of Jurisprudence divided it into various chapters as we find today, used his understanding and separated discussion from the Usul and Furu (secondary principles). He wrote a book on Jurisprudence titled Al-Mutamassik Bihabli Aalir Rasul. It has been praised, as well as its author, by leading Shiite scholars like Al-Mufid, Ash-Shaikh At-Tusi, Ibn Idris and others. He died in the beginning of the fourth century.


17.              Muhammad Bin Yaqub Al-Kuleini.


He is the author of Al-Kafi Fil Hidith which he completed in twenty years. An-Najashi has said that he is the most dependable of all and consistent in reporting the Traditions. Ash-Shaikh has said in Al-Fahrist, Her is trustworthy and well informed. Ibn-ul-Athir has described him Jame-ul-Usul as the renovator of the Imamite creed in the early third century. He died in 328 AH.


18.              Abdul Aziz bin Yahya Al-Jaludi.


According to Ibn-un-Nadim, he is the author of Katib-ul-Murshid Wal Mustarshid and Kitab-ul-Mutaah, both dealing with Jurisprudence. An-Najashi has mentioned an umber of books written by him and dealing with various topics of Jurisprudence and which he wrote on the basis of information-collected form Ali Bin Abi Talib (A.S.) and Ibn Abas. He died after 330 AH.


19.              Ahmed Bin Muhammad Bin Sa’id Al-Hafiz


He is commonly known as Ibn ‘Uqdah Az-Zaidi, Ash-Shaikh At Tusi has said. I heard a group of people talking about him that he said, he had memorized 120,000 Traditions along with their sources and authorities and still recollected in his 30000. he died in 333 AH.


20.              Muhammad Bin Al-Askafi.


An-Najashi says, He is the Shaikh of our friends and their senior. He has a very high position and is much talked about.


Ash-Shaikh has said in Al-Fahrist that he is high-ranking trustworthy and has many reports to his credit. He died in 336 AH.


21.              Abou Ali Muhammad Bin Washshah.


He was a freed salve of Abu Tamam Az-Zainabi. Adh Dhahabi has mentioned him while giving an account of Ibn Abdul Birr in Tadhkiratul Huffaz. He died in 346 AH.


22.              Abu Bakr Muhammad Bin Umar


He is commonly known as Ibn-ul-Jaabi. He was a teacher of Al-Mufid. Adh-Dhahabi has said about him in Tadkiratul Huffaz that he has never met a person who memorized the Quran better than Ibn-ul-Ja’abi. He had committed to his memory 400,000 Traditions as well as remembered 600,000. He used to give the source and then the text of the tradition. He quoted authorities and sources in numerous Traditions but never made a mistake. He lost a bookcase containing 200,000 Traditions. He said to his slave, Do not worry about it. There is not a single Tradition among them, which is difficult for me to recollect both in text as well as in authorities. He was an Imam of Knowledge of the causes of Traditions, of dependable and weak reporters, their dates and life accounts. This knowledge finished with him in his age. Now there is none among the Muslims who can beat him in this respect.


Ibn-un-Nadim has said that he was one of the greatest Shiite scholars. An-Najashi says that he was a great memorizer of the Traditions and a very profound scholar. Ash-Shaikh has mentioned him in his Al-Fahrist as one of those who were the memorizers and critics of the Traditions. He died in 355 AH.


23.              Muhammad Bin Junaid


According to the Rijal of Bahrul Ulum Tabataba’I, he and Ibn Abi Qauil were the leading features of the seventh groups and that Ibn Abi Aquil was a step senior to him.


He wrote a book on Jurisprudence, which is titled as Tahadhib-ush-Shiiah Li Ahkam-ish-Shariah. It spreads over twenty volumes, covering all the topics of Jurisprudence. It has been summarized under the title Al-Ahamadi Fil Fiq-il-Muhammadi.  He has been quoted by many scholars and greatest of the Shiite scholars have praised him and his book.


He died during the fourth century.


24.              Al-Qadi Abu Hanifah An-Numan Bin Muhammad Al-Misri.


He was a Qadi under the Fatimides of Egypt. He wrote Kitab-ul-Akbar Fil Fiqh and Kitab-ul-Iqtisar Fil Fiqh. He has been mentioned by Al-Amir Mukhtar Al-Masbahi in his history, who has said about him. In jurisprudence in religion and in nobility, he was superb. Similarly, Ibn Zawlaq says that he was extremely accomplished and was scholar who kenw every part of Jurisprudence. Among his books is a volume of Traditions named Daaim-ul-Islam. He died in 363 AH.


25.              Al-Hassan Bin Ali, Abu Muhammad Al-Hajjal.


According to An-Najashi, he compiled a voluminous book Al-Jawame Fi Abwab-ish-Shariah. He died during the fourth century.


26.              As-Sudduq, Muhammad Bin Ali Bin Babuyah Al-Qummi


None among the scholars of Qumm compares with him so far as his memory and wide knowledge is concerned. He was a Traditionalist as well as a Jurist. He wrote about three hundred books and treaties with vari3ed subjects and novelty. He wrote a book Man La Yahdiruhul Faqih on the pattern of Man La Yahdiruhul Talib. Another book is Kitab-ul-Tawhid which gives the Traditions on the issue of Tawhid.


Some other books are:

i)                    Ilal-ush-Shara’I Lil Ahadith-ul-Mu’allalah.

ii)                   Ma’anil Akhbar;

iii)                 Al-Khisal-ul-Adadiyyah;

iv)                 Thawab-ul-A’mal;

v)                  Iqab-ul-A’mal


He died in 381 AH.


Four collections of the Traditions

During The Fourth and Fifth Century


First collection is Al-Kafi by Abu-Jafar Muahmmad Bin Yaqub Al-Kalini. He prepared this collection in thirty years and it contains 16099 Traditions with their authorities and sources, related to both Usul and Furu. Al-Kalini died in 328 AH.


Second collection is by As-Sudduq and is called as Man La Yahdiruhul Fiqh, which was prepared on the pattern of Man La Yahdiruhul Talib, as we have already said. It contains 9044 traditions. As-Sudduq died in 381 AH.


            The third collection of the Traditions is Tahdhib-ul-Ahkam, by Ash-Shaikh Abi Jafar Muhammad Bin Al-Hassan At-Tusi. He divided it into 393 sections and it contains 13950 Traditions. The author died in 460 AH.


            The fourth collection of the Traditions compiled during the period under reference is called Al-Istibsar Fil Jam’I Bain Ma Tu’arad Minal Akhbar. It has 920 sections and contains  551 Traditions.


            Except the first collection all other collection are collections secondary injunction (Furu). In this way the total number of Traditions found in these collections comes upto 44244.


            Ash-Shaikh Al-Baha’I has said in Al-Wajizah that the contents of our books on the Traditions are much more than the total contained in Sihah Sittah 1, as would be clear to a person who follows the Traditions collected by both the groups. A large number of scholars have written about these four collections of the Traditions in the forms of explanations, notes and commentaries. We cannot discuss all this work at this place. These books have been discussed at their proper places where we have taken up the life account of their authors. A few of these are:


i.                     Sharh-ul-Istibsar by Ash-Shaikh Muhammad Ibn Ash-Shaikh Hassan (the author of Al-Ma’alim) which contains many useful biographical pieces;

ii.                   Mirat-ul-Uqul Fi Sharhil Kafi by Al-Majlisi;

iii.                  Sharh Usul-il-Kafi by Mulla Saleh Al-Mazandarani;

iv.                 Sharh Usul-il-Kafi by Mulla Sadra;

v.                   A large number of commentaries of At-Tahdhib and Al-Faqih the details of which will need much space and time here and are given in the latter chapters. In addition to these, a number of collections were prepared on the basis of the aforementioned four books, which we shall discuss when we take up the scholars of fourteenth century.


Among other Jurists and Traditionalists were:


1.         Al-Hafiz Muhammad Bin Abdullah Ad-Dabiy An-Nishapuri.


He is usually known as Al-Hahim or Ibn-ul-Bai’a. According to Tadhkiratul Huffaz, he was a great Hafiz, a leading Traditionalist and author. The author of Tadhkirah then quotes Abdul Ghafir as having said, Al-Hakim was the leader of the Traditionalists in his age and knew the Tradition upto appoint of perfection. I have myself heard my teacher and Shaikhs saying that the most prominent people of his age used to give him precedence over themselves, admitted his superiority and recognized his position of respect. Then he (my Shaikh) exaggerated in his praise and reverence and said that his words were nothing as compared to the excellence and superiority of Nishapuri. He further said that whosoever thinks over his book and his insight into the subject of the Tradition would not heap recognizing his merits and admit him to be superior to all his predecessors and successors and that he makes it impossible for anyone to reach the intellectual height where hw was. He lived in perpetual and his age never saw a man like him.


According to the evidence and testimony of As-Samani he was a Shiite. He died in 405 AH.


2.         Muhammad Bin Muhammad Bin An-Numan Al Yarabi Al Qahtani Al Baghdadi.


He is known as Al-Mufid as well as Ibn-ul-Muallim. He was the Shiite Jurist of his age and their master scholarstic, debater and scholar in the fields of Usul, Jurisprudence, Traditions Rijal, Exegesis etc. He has more than two hundred books to his credit including Al-Muqniah Fil Fiqh. He did in 413 AH.


3.         Al-Murtada Ali Bin Al-Hussain.


He was a student of Al-Mufid. Allamah has said in Al-Khul-lasah that he was a versatile genius, equally proficient in various fields of knowledge including Jurisprudence. Most of his writings have nothing to compare with in the past. On jurisprudence, he has three well-known books:


i)                    An-Nasiriyyat which is a commentary on Masil by his grand father An-Nasir;

ii)                   Al-Intisar which distinguishes the Shiites from other;

iii)                 Al-Jumul;


He died in 436 AH.


4.         Abul Fateh Muhammad Bin Ali Bin Uthman Al-Karakaji is the author of Kanz-ul-Fawa’id. He died in 449 AH.


5.         Ash-Shaikh At-Tusi, Muhammad Bin Al-Hasan in known as Shaikh-ut-Taifah and the Jurist of the Shiites. He was a teacher and trainer of many a scholars and has books on various branches of religious studies, which are quite well known. He was a pupil of Al-Murtada. His books include:


a)                  At-Tahdhib;

b)                  An-Nihayah;

c)                  Mutun-ul-Akhbar;

d)                  Al-Mabsut.


In the last mentioned book, he has given a survey of different issues of Jurisprudence, which are mentioned in various books written by Muslims. People have been making use of this book since its publication.


He died in 460 AH.


6.         Sadid-ud-din Mahmud Ali Al-Humsi Ar-Razi Al-Hillil


He was teacher of Fakhr-ud-Din Ar-Razi who is a famous Exegesist and commentator of the Quran. He is one of the top-ranking Shiite Jurists and has his contribution on the issue of bequest. He died during the sixth century.


7.         Muntajib-ud-Din Ali Bin Ubaidullah Bin Al-Hassan Bin Babuyah.


He is the writer of Al-Fahrist. He also wrote a book on the virtues and excellence of Amir-ul-Muminin (A.S), which is known as Al-Arba’in Anil Arba’in. He died after 585 AH.


8.         Muhammad Bin Yusuf Al-Azdi Al-Andulasi Al-Gharanti.


Adh-Dhahabi has testified his being a Shiite in Tadhkiratul-Huffaz and has said that he wrote a Dictionary, obviously in Al-Hadith, in three volumes, had contributed a lot to knowledge and was quite well versed in Jurisprudence. He died in 663 AH.


9.         Al-Hassan Bin Ali Bin Dawud Al-Hilli.


He is the author of book on Rijal and has many other to credit relating Jurisprudence, both in prose and verse. He died during seventh century.


10.       Nasir-ud-Din Muhammad Bin Muhammad Bin Al-Hassan At-Tusi


            He wrote Faraid An Nasiriyyah and Sharah Usul-il-Kafi. He died in 673.


11.       Abul Qasim Jafar Bin Al-Hasan Bin Yahya Bin Said Al Hilli.


He is commonly known as Al-Muhaqqiq. He was a Shiite jurist of proverbial from thorough knowledge. The mjjtahid get help from his books and his knowledge of Jurisprudence even our own days. He has written the following books on jurisprudence:


i)                    Ash-Shara’i’a

ii)                   Al-Mu’tabar;

iii)                 Al-Mukhtasar An-Nafea


He also wrote a commentary with explanation on An-Nihayah (of Ash-Shaikh At-Tusi). From among his own books, Ash-Sharaa and Al-Mukhtasar have so often been commented upon and explained that we cannot count them here.


He died in 676 AH.


12.       Yahya Bin Ahmad Bin Said Al-Hilli


            He was a cousin of Al-Muhaqqiq and wrote Jami’ush Shara’a. He died in 690 AH.

13.       Al-Hassan Bin Yusuf Bin Ali Bin Al-Mutahhar Al-Hilli


He is usually known by the title of Al-Allamah. He has various books on jurisprudence some of which are:

(a)               Tadhkiratul Jamiah containing the opinions of the Sunnite Jurists.

(b)               Al-Mukhtaliful Jamia containing the opinions of Shiite Jurists.

(c)               Al-Muntahi-ul-Jamia which contains the opinions both the groups;

(d)               Nihayatul Ahkam Fin Marifatil Ahkam Wat Tahrir Wal Qawid, which has been so often explained and commented upon by many top-ranking Shiite scholars.

(e)               Al-Irshad which has many commentaries;

(f)                 Al-Iidah wat Tabsirah which is an abridgement of Al-Irshad.


He has many other books in explanation of the traditions. He died in 726 AH.


14.       Muhammad Bin Al-Hassan


He was the son Al-Allamah and is commonly known as Fakhr-ul-Muhaqqiqin. Among his books on Jurisprudence are Iidah-ul-Fawaid Fi Halli Muskilat-il-Qawaid and Al-Fakhriyyah Fin Niyyah etc. He died during the eight century.


15.       Muhammad Bin Makki Al-Aamili Al-Jizzini Al-Muttalibi.


            He is commonly known as Ash-Shahid or Ash-Shahid-ul-Awwal.


He is the pride of Jabal Aamil. He combined in him the knowledge of Maqul and Manqul (Philosophical and rational as well as Reported). He is proverbially known for his insight and knowledge of Jurisprudence. He was the person about whom his teachers Fakh-ul-Muhaqqiqin said, I benefited from him more than he did from me. He received certificates of studies from than forty Sunnite scholars. He is a famous author whose books are well known, variegated and of excellent standard.


Among his books on Jurisprudence are


(i)                  Al-Fiqh-ud-Durus;

(ii)                Adh-Dhikra;

(iii)               Ghayat-ul-Murad;

(iv)              Al-Bayan;

(v)                Al-Alafiyyah;

(vi)              An-Nafliyyah


He also collected forty authe4ntic Traditions of the Prophet (SAWW) and explained their difficult points. He was beheaded in Damascus in dire cruelty on being a Shiite in 786 AH.


16.       Al-Miqdad Bin Abdullah As-Sayyuri Al-Hilli


            He is the author of a well-known book At-Tanqih Fil Fiqh. He died in 792 AH.


17.       Shams-ud-Din Muhammad Bin Shuja Al-Qattan Al-Ansari Al-Hilli.


He was a pupil of Al-Miqdad As-Sayyuri and the author of Ma’alim-ud-Din Fi Fiqhi Aali Yasin. We have got a manuscript copy of this written by the author himself. He died during the ninth century.


18.       Ahmad Bin Fahd Al-Hilli was a pupil of pupils of Ash-Shahid.


He is the author of well-known book on Jurisprudence, titled Al-Muhadhdhib ul-Bare’u. He wrote other besides this. His death occurred in 871 AH.


19.       Ash-Shaikh Ali Bin Abdul Aali Al-Kirki


He is also known as Al-Muhaqqiq-uth-Thani which title he shares with the author Ash-Shara’I and there has been none else to have won this honour. He is the author of Jame-ul-Maqsid, which deals with Jurisprudence. He also wrote a treatise, titled Ar-Rasalah Al-Jafariyyah on which innumerable commentaries have been written. It has been praised and commended by the Shiite scholars as a piece of thorough research. He was the master of his age in Iran during the Safawide Rule there. He died in 937 AH.


20.       Ash-Shaikh Ali Bin Abdul Aali Al-Aamili Al-Maisi


He is known as Al-Muhaqqiq-ul-Maisi. His treatise of Jurisprudence, titled Ar-Rasalah Al-Maisiyyah, which is very well known work of his. He was the teacher ofAsh-Shahid Ath-Thani. He died in 933 AH and was buried in Siddiq Near Tebnin (Lebnon).


21.       Ash-Shaikh Ibrahim Al-Qatii was the author of Al-Munaqidat.


            He died in the eighth century.


22.       Ash-Shaikh Zain-ud-Din Bin Ali Al-Aamili Al-Jubai.


He is called Ash-Shahid-uth-Thani. He was the author of a large number of useful books, which are still in vogue. Most prominent of such books is Al-Masalik which received grate fame and which was much used by people. He was the first one to write on the Manners and Methods of Education and Learning. He was also the first among the Shiites to write about Dirayat-ul-Hadith (judging the validity of a Tradition of Prophet by means of rational thinking) a separate independent and comprehensive book on this branch of knowledge, although some people had taken a lead over him in originating such kind of writing. Among such books the first one to come out was Ash-Shuruh-ul-Mazjiyyah. It was not well known among the people. S he wrote Shuruh-ul-Lumat-id-Dimishqiyyah, Alfiyyah Fil Fiqh, An-Nafliyyah and Ad-Dirayah. Alls these books were written in order to give a distinction to the Shiite in comparison with the other sects. He also treatises like Asar-us-Salat, Khasa’is-ul-Jumah, Kashf-ur-Raibah Fi Ahkam-il-Ghaibah? Musakkin-ul-Fuad Fi Faqd-il-Ahibbat-I-Wal Awlad, Al-Habwah, Mirath-uz-Zawjah etc. All these books were the foremost in their fields. He was martyred on his way to Islambul (Istanbul) for being a Shiite and his head was taken to that city. This happened in 966 AH.


23.       Ash-Shaikh Hussain Bin Abdus Samad Al-Aamili Al-Harithi Al-Hamdani


He was the father of Ash-Shaikh Al-Baha’I and one of the prominent Shiite Traditionalist and jurists. He wrote a commentary and explanation to forty select3ed Traditions of the Prophet (SAWW). HE died in 984 Ah.


24.       Ash-Shaikh Hasan Bin Zain-u-Din Ash Shahid-uth-Thani


He is the author of Al- Maalim Fil Fiuqh and Muntaqal Jaman Fi Ahadith-is-Sihah-I-wal Husan. He died in 1011 Ah.


25.       Ash-Shaikh Muhammad Bin Ash-Shaikh Hasan (the Author of Ma’alim)


He wrote commentaries on Al-Istibsar and At-Tahdhib as well as on his father’s book Al-Ithan ‘ Ashariyyah. He also wrote commentaries on Usul-ul-Kafi, Al-Faqih, Al-Mukhtalaf, Al-Mdarik, etc.


He died in 1030 AH.


26.       Ash-Shaikh Baha-ud-Din Muhammad Bin Al-Husain Al –Aamili.


He was a Jurist and a Traditionalist as well as versatile scholar. He was appointed as Shaikh-ul-Islam during the reign of the Safawide Emperor Shah Abbas. But he gave up that post and traveled around for thirty years in the garb of dervishes. He wrote an explanation andcommetary on forty selected Traditions of the Prophet as well as Al-Habi-ul-Matin and Al-Jamiul Abbasi, which deal with the fields of the Traditions and Jurisprudence. He died in 1031 AH.


27.       Ash-Shaikh Hasan Bin Ali Bin Hassan Bin Ahmad Al-Aamili Al-Hanini.


He has been mentioned in Amal-ul-Aamil as a Jurist and Traditionalist who was reliable, honest and of great value. He died in 1050 AH.


28.       As-Sayyid Muhammad Baqiar Ad-Damad Al-Asfahani.


He is a contemporary of Al-Baha’i and a Jurist who was profound in both the rational and reported branches of Knowledge. (Aqliyyah wan Naqliyyah). He died in 1041 AH.


29.       Sadr-ud-Din Ash-Shirazi.


He is usually called as Mulla Sadra. He wrote a commentary on Usul-ul-Kafi. He died around 1060 AH.


30.       Al-Mawala Muhammad Taqi Al-Asfahani.


He is known as Al-Majlisi Al-Awwal. He was the first person to undertake the work of propagation of the Traditions of the Prophet (SAWW) and connected studies during the Safawide period. He wrote two commentaries on Al-Fiqah. He died in 1070 AH.


31.       Mulla Muhsin Al-Kashani.


He is the author Al-Wafi on the Traditions and Al-Mafatih on Jurisprudence. He has many other prominent books.


            He died in 1091 AH


32.       Muhammad Bin Al-Hassan Bin Al-Hurr Al-Aamili.


He is the author of Al-Wasail dealing with the Traditions, which is vary much relied upon by the Shiite Jurists. He died in 1104 AH.


33.       As-Sayyid Hashim Bin Sulaiman Al-Bahrani.


He was very profound Traditionalist and the author of many books. He died in 1107 AH.


34.       Al-Allamah Al-Majlisi Muhammad Baqir Bin Muhammad Taqi Al-Asfahani.


He is the author of famous book Bihar-ul-Anwar which is in twenty five big volumes which are equal to tens of books. He also wrote a commentary on Al-Kafi, titled Mirat-ul-Uqul, as well as commentaries on At-Tahdhib and other books of Traditions. He died in 110 AH.


35.       Mawla Abdullah Bin Nur-ullah Al-Bahrani.


He was a contemporary of Al-Majlisi and author of Al-Awalim, which deals with the traditions and spreads over 100 volumes. He died in the early eleventh century.


36.       As-Sayyid Ne’matuillah Bin Abdullah al-Jazairi.


He was pupil of Al-Majlisi and wrote Al-Anwar-un-Numaniyyah, which deals with the tradition in addition to other books. He died in 1112 AH.


37.       As-Sayyid Nur-ud-din Bin Ne’matullah Al-Jazairi.


He was the son of As-Sayyid Be’metullah mentioned above and a Jurist-Traditionalist. He died in 1158 AH.


38.       As-Shaikh Yusuf Bin Ahmad Bin Ibrahim Ad-Darazi Al-Hairi.


He wrote a book on jurisprudence title Al-Hadaiq which is a unique book of its kind. He also wrote Ad-Durah An-Najafiyyah and other book. He died in 1187 AH.


39.       As-Sayyid Abul Hasan Musa Bin Haider Al-Husani Al-Aamili.


He was the great-grand father of the father of the author of this book. He was a Jurist-Traditionalist and his school and about 400 students. He died in 1194 AH.


40.       Aqa Muhammad Baqir Bin Muhammad Akmal Al-Bahbahani


He was the teacher of many scholars of repute and was one of the prominent figures among the scholars of the Traditions and Jurisprudence, as well as other studies. He died in 1208 AH.


41.       As-Sayyid Muhammad Mahdi At-Tabataba’i.


He was a pupil of Aqa Muahmmad Baqir and known as Bahr-u-Ulum and Murabbiy-ul-Fuqaha. He is the author of a book on Jurisprudence known as Al-Masabin. He also composed a unique poem on the subject. The author of Miftah-ul-Karamah wrote a commentary on Al-Wafai with the help of the notes given at At-Tabatabai during his discussion on Al-Wafai. He died in 1212 AH.


42.       Ash-Shaikh Asadullah Bin Ismail At-Tustari Al-Kazami.


He was one of the most figures of his age in the fields of Jurisprudence and Usul. Two of books on Jurisprudence namely; Al-Maqabis and Al-Wasail have been printed. He had the eyes of a genius and was greatly followed by successor. He died in 1220 AH.


43.       As-Sayyid Muhammad Al-Jawwad Bin Muhammad Al-Husaini Al-Aamili.


He was a pupil of Bahr-ul-Ulum and himself the teacher of the author Al-Jawahir. He wrote Muftah-ul-Karamah Fi Sharh-I-Qawaid-il-Allamah which is a unique work in the field of Jurisprudence so far as the collection of different opinions and finding thir agreements are concerned. He wrote also Sharh-ul-Wafi and Hawashiy-ur-Rawadah. He died in 1226 AH.


44.       Ash-Shaikh Jafar Ibn Ash-Shaikh Khidr Al-Janaji An-Najafi


HE was student of Bahr-ul-Ulum and a wonder of his age in respect to his deep insight in Jurisprudence. He is the author of Kashf-ulGhital’Ann Mahasin-sh-=Shariat-il Gharra, and Sharha-ul-Qawaid. He died in 1228 AH.


45.       As-Sayyid Husain Ibn As-Sayyid Abul Hassan Musa Al-Hussani Al-Aamili.


He was the brother of the great grand father of the author of the present book. He was one of the most prominent scholars and Jurists of his age. He died in 1230 AH.


46.       As-Sayyid Muhsin Al-Ariji


He was called Khatib-ul-Ulama and was also known as Al-Muhaqqiq-ul-Kazimi. He wrote, beside other books, Al-Wasail Fil Fiqh. He died in 1231 AH.


47.       As-Shaikh Muhammad Ali Al-Asam An-Najafi


He was one of the jurists of his age and a pupil of Bahr-ul-Ulum. He died in 1234 AH.


48.       Ash-Shaikh Musa Bin Ash-Shaikh Jafar An-Najafi Al Janaji


            He was the Jurist of his age. He died in 1241 AH.


49.       Ash-Shaikh Hussain Bin Muhammad Bin Najaf Ali At-Tabrizi An-Najafi


He was one of the prominent Jurists of his age and among its most pious people. He died in 1247 AH.


50.       Ash-Shaikh Hassan Al Qubaisi was one of Jurists of his age. He died in 1258 AH.


51.       Ash-Shaikh Ali Bin Ibrahim Al-Aamili Al-Kawtarani


He was one of the prominent scholars of Jabal Aamil during his age. He wrote the commentary of the poem of Bahr-ul-Ulum. He died in 1260 AH.


52.       Ash-Shaikh Muhammad Hassan Bin Baqir An-Najafi.


He is the author of a famous book of Jurisprudence, namely Jawahir-ul-kalam which is considered to be one of the miracles of its age and is relied upon by scholar even in our own times. He died in 1266 AH.


53.       Al-Hafiz Ash-Shaikh Muhsin Bin Khanfar An-NAjafi


He was one of the prominent scholars of his age. His student As-Sayyid Muhammad Al-Hind has said in his Nazm-ul-Laal that he (Al-Hafiz) used to be very punctilious about the text of the traditions and used to pick up minor changes in the text found in Al-Wasail. He died in 1270 AH.


54.       Ash-Shaikh Murtada Bin Muhammad Amin Al-Ansari


He was a prominent Jurist of his age and the author of a number of well-known books on Jurisprudence like Al-Makasib. He died in 1281 AH.


55.       Ash-Shaikh Raid Ibn Ash-Shaikh Muhammad Ab-Najafi was prominent Jurist in his age. He died in 1290 AB.


56.       As-Sayyid Hussain Al-Kohkumri An-Najafi is also known as As-Sayyind Hussain At-Turk. He was prominent figure of his age in the field of Jurisprudence. He died in 1299 AH.


57.       Ash-Shaikh Nuh Bin Qasim An-Najafi was one of the Jurists of his time. He diedin 1300 AH.


58.       As-Sayyid Mahdi Al-Qazwini Al-Hilli was one of the top-ranking Jurist of his age. He died in 1300 AH.


59.       Ash-Shaikh Abdullah ‘bin Ali Aal Nemah Al-Aamili Al Jubai


            He was the first jurist of Jabal Aamil in his age. He died in 1303 AH.


60.       Ash-Shaikh Muhammad Bin Ali Aal Izzud Din Al-Aamili.


He was one of the prominent Jurists, teachers and pious people of his age. He died in 1303 AH.


61.       Ash-Shaikh Musa Bin Amin Aal Shararah Al-Aamili.


He was Jurist as well as a Teacher. He wrote a poem on the subject of inheritance. He died in 1304 AH.


62.       Mulla Muhammad Al-Irawani An Najafi


            He was one of the prominent Jurist and teachers of his time. He died in 1306 AH.\


63.       Ash-Shaikh Muhammad Hussain Al-Kazimi An-Najafi 


He is the author of Hidayatul Anam Fi Sharh-Shara’i’il Islam. He was a well known Jurists, teacher and pious person of his age. He died in 1308 AH.


64.       Ash-Shaikh Muhammad Hassan Bin YI‘asin Al-Kazimi was one of the prominent jurists of his age. He died in 1308 AH.


65.       Ash-Shaikh Zainul Abidin Al-Mazandarani Al-Hairi was one of the leading Jurists of his age and one of the prominent people of his tie. He died in 1309 AH.


66.       As-Sayyid Mirza Muhammad Hassan Ash-Shirazi


            HE got domiciled in Samara. He was considered to be the Imamates during his age. He trained most of the Jurists of his time. He was the person who gave Fatwa (religious verdict) declaring the use of tobacco as prohibited act, when Shah Nasir-ud-Din gave a monopoly of tobacco to the British. This Fatwa forced the British to cancel that monopoly. He died in 1312 AH.


67.       Ash-Shaikh Mirza Habibullah Ar-Rishti An Najafi


            He was one of the top ranking Jurists, teachers and pious persons of his age. He was a teacher of many a Jurist and the author of a large number of books, relating to Jurisprudence and other studies. He died in 1313 AH.


68.       Mirza Muhammad Hassan Al-Ashtiani At-Tehrani.


He was one of the top ranking scholars of Iran and the author of a number of books on Jurisprudence. He died in 1314 AH.


69.       Ash-Shaikh Aqa Rida Bin Muhammad Hadi Al-Hamadani


He is the author of Misbah-ul-Faqih. He was one of the prominent Jurists, teachers and pious persons of his age. He was greatly respected by the people both from among the Shiites as well as the Sunnites. He died in 1322 AH.


70.       Ash-Shaikh Hassan al-Mamaqani An-Najafi was one of the prominent Jurists of his age and author of a number of books on Jurisprudence.


71.       Mulla Muhammad Sharabiani An-Najafi


            He was a Jurist and author of books on Jurisprudence. He died in 1323 AH.


72.       Ash-Shaikh Muhammad Taha Najaf At-Tabrizi An-Najafi 


            He was one of the Jurists of his age and was counted among the most pious persons. He wrote a book on jurisprudence titled Kitab-ul-Insaf. He died in 1323 AH.


73.       Ash-Shaikh Mulla Kazim Al-Khurasani


            he taught and trained many scholars. Among his books on Jurisprudence is Sharh-ut-Tabsirah. He died in 1329 AH.


74.       As-Sayyin Hassan Ibrahim died in the year 1329 AH.


75.       As-Sayyid Najib-ud-Din Fadl Ullah died in 1336 AH.


76.       As-Sayyid Mahdi Al-Haidari died in 1336 AH.


77.       As-Sayyid Kazim At-Tabatabai Al-Yazdi


            H was one of the most accomplished Jurists of his age as well as a teacher of great fame. One of his books Al-Urwatul Wuthqa is a remarkable book and got famous for its organisation and division of material in a number of sections. He also wrote Hashiyatul Makasib. He died in 1337 AH.


78.       Mirza Muhammad Taqi Ash-Shirazi


He was of the most prominent Jurists of his age. After the death of Al-Yazidi he became of the chief of the community. He died in 1338.


79.       Ash-Shaikh Fath Ullah Bin Muhammad Jawwad Al Asfahani.


He was known as Shariat Madar and became the chief of the scholars after the death of As- Shirazi. HE died in 1339 Ah.


80.       Ash-Shaikh Mirza Hussain An-Naini An-Najafi


81.       As-Sayyid Abul Hassan Al-Asfahani An-Najafi. He died in 1365 AH.


82.       Ash-Shaikh Abdul Karim Al-Yazdi Al-Qummi


83.       As-Sayyid Hussain Al-Barujardi died in 1380 AH


Shi’ite Books On Tradition During The Period  From Eleventh To Fourteenth Century


1.         Al-Wafi


It was compiled by Ash-Shaikh Muhammad Bin Murtada who was actually called as Mulla Muhsin Al-Kashi. He collected all the Traditions which are found in the Four Books and are related to Usul or Furu. He further arranged them into different chapters, explained difficult points wherever it was necessary and clarified the reasons for putting together some of the Traditions which appeared to be contradictory. He wrote about two hundred books. He died in 1091 AH.


2.         Wasa’il-ush-Shai’ah Ila Ahadith-ush-Shariah.


It was compiled by Ash-Shaikh Muhammad bin Al-Hassan Bin Al-Hurr Al-Aamili. He collected the contents of the four books from the eighty books owned by him and seventy others. He edited these Traditions which related to Furu’a only, divided them into different chapters, explaining some of the important points. This book became he most popular book as a source of reference with the teachers as well as students. Al-Wafi did not meet such success in becoming popular as was w\written in store for Al-Wasa’il. This was because of the fact the arrangement of these traditions in Al-Wasa’il was better than Al-Wafi although the explanations given Al-Wafi are more conv\incing amd ore acceptable, but the success achieved by A;-Easail was much more than the former and the remaining four books are also based upon it. The author of Al-Wasail died in 1104 AH.


3.         Bihar-ul-Anwar Fi Ahadith-in-Nabiy Wal A’immatil Athar


it was compiled by Ash-Sahikh Muhammad Baqir Ibn Ash-Shaikh Muhammad Taqi, known as Al-Majlisi, in 26 volumes. One needs a lifetime just to copy it not to speak of collecting the data on different branches of knowledge dealt with herein, including the biographies of the Prophet (SAWW) Sayyidah Fatimah Az-Zahra (S.A) and the Twelve Imams (A.S.) their virtues, merits, ideas and opinions. The authors collected all this material without exercising any choice. Most of it is not found in the four books. It was through the efforts of first mentioned three persons named Muhammad (Al-Kalini, As-Suddiq and At-Tusi) and the last mentioned three scholars named Muhammad (MuhsIin Kashi, Muhammad Al-Aamili and Al-Majilisi) that the information and sayings of Ahl-Al-Bait (A.S.) were save. They collected such information, edited it and arranged in book forms. All three persons mentioned first and the two of those mentioned last exercised their choice according to their authorities (which means Al-Majlisi did not).

4.         Al-Awalim Fil Hadith.


It was compiled by the great Traditionist Al-Mawia Abdullah bin Nurullah Al-Bahrani in 100 volumes. It did not meet with such a success and did Bihar. The author died in the earlier twelfth century.


5.         Ash-Shifa Fi Hadith-i-Aal-i-Mustafa


It is a voluminous book, containing many volume on the Traditions. It was completed by Ash-Shaikh Muhammad Ar-Rida Bhin Al-0Faqih Ash-Shaikh Abdullah At-Tabrizi who died in 1158 Ah.


6.         Jami’ul Ahkam


It was compiled by As-Sayyid Abdullah Ash-Shabari in 25 big volumes, probably the biggest ever. The author died in 1242 Ah.


7.         Mustadrakat-us-Wasa’il


It was compiled by Mirza Hussain An-Nuri. He collected all those traditions which the author of Al-Wasail had missed out and arranged them into chapters.


But he has included Al-Fiqh-ur-Ridawi in this book, which is not finally proved to be the work of Imam Ali Rida (A.S.). There are many such instances in this book. It is not really supplementation of Al-Wasail to add such things, which were not reliable and certain in the opinion of the author of al-Wasail. He has given biographical data in the latter part of the book, which is not found anywhere else. Most of this data is obviously based upon Jamiur Rawat by Al-Hajj Muhammad Al-Ardbili who was a contemporary of Al-Majlasi. Mirza Hussain Nuri, the author of the book, died in 1320 AH.


8.         Al-Bahr-uz-Zakhkhar Fi Sharh-i-Adadith-il-A’Immatil-Athar


It was started by Sayyid Muhsin Al-Amin (the author of the present work) and three volumes could be completed that he died.


Shi’ite Books On Forty Traditions


Both the Sunnite as well as the Shiite scholars have reported on the basis of authentic report originating with the Prophet that he said, Anyone who reports forty Traditions of mine to my followers will be brought to life again on the Day of Judgment as a scholar and a Jurist. It is for this reason that many Muslim Scholars compiled books of Forty Traditions. They collected in every such book forty Traditions of the Prophet according to trheir own basis of selection and appended explanation and commentaries to them, in the hope hat they might be among those person who are mentioned in the Tradition quoted above. The Shiite scholars too followed suit and did not lag behind. They composed a large number books in the explanation of Forty Traditions, compiled by As’ad Bin Ibrahim Bin Hassan Al-Irbali.


Other Such books are:


i.                     Forty Traditions by Ash-Shahid Muhammad Bin Makki Al’Aamili Al-Jizzini who was martyred in 786 Ah:

ii.                   Forty Traditions by the Student of Ash-Shahid whose name was Al-Miqdad Bin Abdullah As-Sayyuri Al-Hilli Al-Asadi;

iii.                  A Commentary on Forty Traditions by Ash-Shaikh Hussain Bin AbdusSamad (Father of Al-Baha’i) who died in 984 AH;

iv.                 A Commentary on Forty Traditions by Ash-Shaikh Al-Baha’i Mhammad bIn Hussain Al-Aamili who died in 1031 AH’

v.                   A Commentary on Forty Traditions by Muhammad Baqir Bin Muhammad Taqi Al-Majalisi Al-Asfahani who died in1070 AH.


Shi’ite Books on Dirayatul Hadith 1


The first person to begin in the field was Al-Hakim Abu Abdullah An-Naishapuri who is known as Ibn-ul-Bai’a.  We wrote a book titled Marifat-u-Ulumil-Hadith. According to Kasifuz-Zunun, the first person to initiate in this field was Al-Hakim Abu Abdullah An-Naishapuri. He wrote Marifat-u-Ulum-il-Hadith which is five volumes and contains fifty types of Traditions. He was followed by In-us-Salah who has mentioned 65 types of Traditions. The author of Kashfuz Zunun then writing about the studies on Traditions (Ulum-ul-Hadith) mentions a book by Abi’ Ammr Uthman Bin Abdur Rahman known as Ibn-us-Salah Ash-Shahrzuri Al-Hafiz Ash-Shafi’i Ad Dimashqui who died in 643 AH.

1.  A branch of Islamic studies dealing with the principles of judging the validity of reported Tradition by use of reason and logical argument.


            As Suyuti has said in Tabrib-ur-Rawi (Third note), Shaikh-ul-Islam has said htat the first person to terminology (that is the Terminology of the Traditions) was Al-Qadi Abu Muhammad Ar-Ramehrmuzi but he did not go well into details. He was found by Al-Hakim Abu Abudullah An-Naishapuri in the field but he colt not arrange it ad give it to goof form. These two were found by Abu Na’im Al-Asbahani. Sbu Amr Uthman Bin As-Salah Ash-Sherzuri who made refined it.


            I have to say that Abu Naim Al-Asbahani, Ahamd Bin Abdullah the author of Hulyat-ul-Awliyai, was not a Shiite although he might have been. As to Abu Naim Al-Fadl Bin Dakkin, he was definitely a Shiite. As-Suyuti has himself said in Al-Awail that the first person to classify different types of the traditions was Ibn-us-Salah in his well known Al-Mukhtasar. What he means is hat Ibn-us-Salah was the first one to refine and arrange this branch of studies as has been mentioned in his quotation from Shaikh-Ul-Islam, and not that he was the first person to begin. The pioneer in this filed was Al-Hakim, as has been said by Shaikh-ul-Islam and and Al-Hakim was senior to Ibn-us-Salah by about 238 years. As-Samani in Al-Ansab and Adh-Dhahabi in Tadhkiratul Huffaz have testified that Al-Hakim was a Shiite. He died in 405 AH.


            Among the Shiite scholars who worked in this field was As-Sayyid Jamal-ud-Din Ahmad Bin Musa Bin Jafar Bin Tawas Al-Hussaini. His student Al-Hassan Bin Dawud Al-Hilli has said about him in his Rijal that he did the best in the field of Rijal, Reporting of the Tradition and Exegesis (Tafsir) to which nothing can be added. Jamal-ud-Din Ahmad coined new terminology in the field of the Traditions and divided them according to the Imamite views into four types which are:


i.                     As-Sahih (correct and absolute authentic)

ii.                   Al-Hassan (Good)

iii.                  Al-Muaththaq (The Reliable)

iv.                 Ad-Daif (Weak)


In addition to these types, he further classified the Traditions not falling within the definition of above-mentioned types:


i)                    Al-Mursal;

ii)                   Al-Mudmar;

iii)                 Al-Marfu’a

iv)                 Al-Maqtu’a

v)                  Al-Mutawartar

vi)                 Al-Aahad

vii)               Al-Maqbul


He died in 673 AH.


Among other writers and authors in this field are the following:


1.         As-Sayyid Ali Bin Abdul Hamid Al-Hassani


He wrote Sharh-u-Usul-I-Dirayat-il-Hadith as it has already been mentioned. He died during the eighth century.


2.         Ash-Shahid-uth-Thani Ash-Shaikh Zain-ud-Din Bin Ali Al-Aamili Al-Juba’i


He was the first person from among our friends who wrote in the field on the lines which are known to us. He wrote a treatise titled Al-Bidayah Fi Ilm-id-Dirayah and added to it a comprehensive commentary which has since been published. He also wrote another treatise on this subject, titled Ghunyat-ul-Qasidin Fi Ma’rifat-i-Istilahat-ul-Muhaddithin. He was martyred in 966 AH.


3.         Ash-Shaikh Hussain Bin Abdus Samad Al-Aamili Al-Jubai Al-Harithi Al-Hamadani


He was a student of Ash-Shahid-uth-Thani and the father of Ash-Shaikh Al-Baha’i. He wrote a treatise on this subject and titled it as Wusul-ul-Akhyar Ila Usul-il-Akhbar. It is found in print. He died in 987 AH.


4.         Ash-Shaikh Hassan Ibn Ash-Shahid-ith-Thani


In the preface to his book Muntaqal Jaman Fil Ahadith-is-Sahih Wal ihsan he discussed the principal of Ilm-ul-Hadith. He died in 1031 AH.


5.         Ash-Shaikh Baha-ud-din Aamili


He wrote a book named Al-Wajizah Fi Ilm-id-Dirayah but it is very brief. He died in 1031 AH


6.         Abu Yula Humza Bin Qasim Al-Alawi.


He was from among the decendents of Abbas Bin Ali Bin Ali Abi Talib (A.S). According to An-Najashi, he wrote a book on biography which he reported from Imam Jafar Sadiq (A.S). An Najashi describes this book as good. He died in the third century.


7.         Abu Abdullah Muhammad Bin Al-Hassan Bin Ali Al-Muharibi.


An-Najashi reports that he wrote a book on Rijal which was heard by a group of Shiites who has praised it. An-Najashi has given the authority for this book. He died during third and fourth century.


8.         Abu Muhammad Abdullah Bin Jabalah Bin Hayyan Bin Abjar Al-Kinani Al-Kufi


According to An-Najashi, he wrote a book on Rijal. Either he or Al-Yaqtini (Whose account will follow) or Muhammad Bin Khalid Al-Barqi was the first one to write a book in this field because all the three lived in the same age. As-Suyuti has said in Al-Awail that the first one to write a book on Rijal was Shubah. But Shubah died in 260 AH and therefore, Ibn Jabalah is senior to him because he died in 219 AH.


9.         Abu Jafar Muhammad Bin Isa Bin Ubaid Bin Yaqtin Al Ubaidi Al-Yaqtini.


According to An-Najashi, he was the author of a book on Rijal. He died during the third century.


10.       Al-Hassan Bin Ali Bin Faddal.


Both An-Najashi and Ash-Shaikh have mentioned him as being the author of a book on Rijal. He died in 224 AH.


11.       Ali Bin Hassan Bin Ali Bin Faddal.


According to At-Taliqah many scholars depend upon in connection with biographical data. From this statement, it appeared that he probably wrote a book on Rijal. He died during the third century.


12.       Da’bal Bin Ali Al-Khuza’i


He is the author of Kitab-ush-Shura, which has been mentioned by Ibn-un-Nadim. He died in 246 AH.


13.       Al-Fadl Bin Shadhan.


He is often cited by the biographer which indicate that he did write a book or books of biography. He died in 260 AH.


14.       Muhammad Bin Mas’ud Al-Ayyashi


An-Najashi says that he was very well informed and had an insight in reporting with which he did justice. He wrote a number of books, which exceeds two hundred. He died during the fourth century.


15.       Abu Abdullah Muhammad Bin Khalid Al-Barqi Al-Qummi.


Ibn-Un-Nadim says that he wrote a book on Rijal in which he mentioned whatever was reported about Amir-ul-Muminin (A.S). An other version is that he included in this book whatever was reported about Amir-ul-Muminin (A.S) and afterwards. This book is available and known as Rijal-ul-Barqui. He died during the third century.


16.       Abu-Jafar Ahmad Bin Muhammad Bin Khalid Al Barqui


He was the son of Al-Barqui mentioned above. Muhammad Bin Jafar Bin Battah has mentioned in his Al-Fahrist a book on Rijal among the writings of Abu Jafar. The name of this book is tabaqat-ur-Rijal which has been cited by An-Najashi and Ash-Shaikh in Al-0Fahrist, alongwith the authorities. He died in 274 AH.

17.       Muhammad Bin Jafar Bin Battah Al-Qummi.


He compiled a catalogue of the names of scholars whom he saw or met. He died in 274 AH.


18.       Ali Bin Al-Hakam


He is from among the oldest friends. It appears that eh wrote a book on Rijal which is often quoted and cited by Ibn Hajar in his book Lisan-ul-Mizan in connection with the life accounts of the Shiite personalities.


19.       Abu-Bakr As-Suli, Muhammad Bin Yahya Bin Abbas


Ibn-un-Nadim has said in his Al-Fahrist. He is one of the wittiest writers. He has to credit the following books: (i) Kitab-ul-Wunzara (ii) Akbar-u-Abi Tamam, (iii) Akhbar-ul-Jubai (iv) Akhbar-u-Abi Amr Bin Al-Ula (v) Akhbare-ul-Khulafa Wash-Shuara


It appears that it is the last mentioned book which has become referred to in Kashf-ur-Zunun under the title Akhbar-ush-Shuara and which has recently been publishedin Egypt as Kitab-ul-Awraq, because Ibn-un-Nadim also says that he reported something about Ali and was therefore summoned (by the Government) to be killed. He died in 330 AH.


20.       Abdul Aziz Bin Ishaq Az-Zaidi


            He is the author fo Tabaqat-ush-Shiah. He died during the fourth century.


21.       Abu Ahmad Abdul Aziz Bin Yahya Al-Jaludi Al-Basri.


An-Najashi has mentioned a book written by him under the title Tabaqat-ul-Arab. He died in 330 AH.


22.       Ahmad Bin Muhammad Bin Sa’id Al-Hafiz


He is known as Ibn-Uqdah Az-Zaidi. Ash Shaikh has said in Al-Fahrist that he wrote a book about those persons who reported the Traditions whether they were Shiite or Sunnites. Similarly he wrote a another book about those person who reported about Imam Hassan (A.S.), Imam Hussain (A.S.), Imam Ali Bin Al-Hussain (A.S0, Imam Muhammad Al-Baqir (A.S), Zaid Bin Ali Bin Al-Hussain and Imam Jafar As Sadiq (A.S). he died in 333 AH.


23.       Ibad BIn Yaqub Ar-Rawajini


He is the author of Marifat-us-Shabah and Akhbar-ul-Mahdi. .A\aasdddHis being a Shiite has been testified by Ibn Hajar in At-Taqrib, Adh-Dhahabi in Al-Mukhtasar, As-Samani in Al-Ansab and other authorities. He died in 250 or 271 AH 1.


24.       Abu Ali Ahmad Bin Muhammad Ammar Al-Kufi     


According to An-Najashi, he is the author of Kitab-ul-Mamduhin wal Madhmumin which is a voluminous book. He died in 346 AH.


25.       Abu Bakr Bin Al-juabi Muhammad Bin Umar2 Bin Muhammad Bin Salam or Salim


Ibn-un-Nadim says that he wrote a book about those persons who expressed religious devotion to Ali bin Abi Talib (A.S.) from among the scholars and person fo eminence. Ibn-un-Nadim has also a brief account of the writer. An-Najashi says that he wrote a book titled Kitab-ush-Shiah Min Ashab-il-Hadith, which is a voluminous book. Similarly he wrote another book, al-Wuwali Wal Ashraf. In another he gave the account of those people who reported from Bani Hashim and their allies. Other books written by him are Akhbar-u-Aal-i-Ami Talib, Akhbar-u-Baghdad (in which he gave the account of the Traditionalists there too). Ibn-un-Nadim has mentioned other books in the field written by Abu Bakr Bin Al-uabi alongwith their authorities. Ash Shaikh ahs said in Al-Fahrist. He had prepared a catalogue of those people who reported the Traditions and other information connected with knowledge along with their work, creed etc. Ash Shaikh has also given the sources. He died in 355 AH.


26.       Abul Faraj Al-Ashahani, Ali Bin Al-Hussain Al-Ummawi Al-Marwani.


He is the author of Al-Aaghani which is unique book of its kind. Another book written by him is titled maqatil-ut-Talibm which too has no parallel. Both these books combine history and biography. He died in 355 AH.


27.       Abul Hassan Muhammad Bin Ahmad Bin Dawud Bin Ali Al-Qummi.


Both An-Najashi and Ash-Shaikh have mentioned among his works a book titled Kitab-ul-mamdhm Wal Madhmumin. He died in 368 AH.


28.       Abu Abdullah Muhammad Bin Imran Al-Marzhani.


Ibn-un-Nadim has said about him. He was very well informed and often quoted. Some has said about that he was the source of Information for Literature, possessor of information, strange incidents and the author of a large number of books. According to Al-Fahrist of Ibn-un-Nadim, he wrote a book comprising ten thousand sheets in which he had given the accounts of poets and selections from their poetry. First of these poets was Basashar and the last one Ibn-ul-Mutiz. He has another useful book comprising five thousand rages. The first chapter of this book contains the accounts of those pets during the pre-Islamic as well as Islamic periods who composed very little poetry. In the second chapter he gives an account of the description of poets and their bodily defects from head to feet. In the third chapter he gives the creed of different poets as being Shiite, scholastic, kharjie, Jew or Christian. In the last chapter, he gives an account of those who either gave up composing poetry or used their poetry for one subject only, like As-Sayyid Al-Himyari or Al-Abbas Bin Al-Ahnaf. He also compiled a dictionary in which he gave the accounts of poets in alphabetical order. There are about five thousand names in this dictionary along with the specimens of verses. The total number of pages is about five thousand all the prominent poets from Imr-ul-Qais ot the earlier Abbaside regime.


I have to add that this book, Mujam-ush-Shuara is a book, which every one quotes. The orientalists got hold of the second volume of this book near Aleppo and published it from Egypt. They have kept searching for the remaining volumes for they have announced have reward or price in the newspapers. We have a part of this book, which give a summary of the life accounts of the Shiite poets. It certain’s the account of 28 poets.


One of the distinguishing feature of this Mu’jam is that it gives such a detailed account of the person included that even the most prominent ones from among them have not been treated in this detailed manner in other books.


He died in 378 AH.


29.       Muhammad Bin Ali Bin Bahuwaih Al-Qummi, known as As-Sudduq


An-Najashi has said that he wrote Al-Masabih in which 15 chapters are connected with the discussion of those who reported the Traditions from the Prophet (SAWW), fro Sayyidah Fatimatuz Zahra (S.A) or from other Imams (A.S); those who met the traditionalists and those who have been mentioned by Al-Barqui.  There is a mention of Al-Masabih in Al-Fahrist. He could not finish his work on Rijal on account of death which occurred in 381 AH.


30.       Ibn-un-Nadim, Muhammad Bin Ishaq.


He is the author of Al-Fahrist which is unique of its kind. His being a Shiite has been testified by Yaqut in Mujam-ul-Udaba. He died in 385 AH.


31.       As-Sahib, Ismail Bin Ibad


he is the author of the following books: (i) Kitab-ul-Wuzara (ii) Kitab-uz-Zaidiyyah (iii) Unwan-ul-Maarif wa Dikr-il-Khalaif Fi Tarikh-in-Nabi Wa Man Khutaba |Bil Khilafah (iv) Akhbar-u-Abil Aina. He died in 385 AH.


32.       Isa Bin Mehran known as Al-Mustatif.


Ash-Shaikh At-Tusi has written Al-Fahrist, Ibn-un-Nadim has mentioned him as a being the author Kitab-ul-Muhaddithin.


            He died during fourth century.


33.       Ahmad Bin Ali Al-Alawi Al-Atiqui


He worte Kitab-ur-Rijal. He died during the fourth century. His son Ali Bin Ahmad also wrote a well known book on Rijal.


34.       Ahmad Bin Muhammad Bin Abdullah Bin Al-Hassan Bin Ayash.


            He is the author of Kitab-ul-Istimal Al Marifat-ir-Rijal. He died in 401 AH.


35.       Muhammad Bin Ali Bin Yaqub Bin Ishaq Al-Katib-ul-Qanin.


He was the teacher of An-Najashi who said that he was the author of Kitab-ur-Rijal-I-Abil Mufaddal. He died during the fifth century.


36.       Ash-Shaikh Al-Mufid, Muhammad Bin Muhammad Bin An-Numan.


He is the author of Al-Irahad which deals with the lives of the Twelve Imam. All those who were junior to him made use of this book while writing on this subject. He died in 413 AH.



37.       Ahmad Bin Al-Hussain Bin Ubaidullah Al-Ghadairi.


He wrote two books in this field. One of them is bout those who were praised and the other about those who were hurt. According to Ash-Shaikh At-Tusi, one of them is about the books of the other about principles (Usul), he died during the mid-fifth century.


38.       Ahmad Bin Ali An-Najashi.


He is the author of the well-known book on Rijal in whcch he discussed the Imamite writers. He died in 450 AH.


39.       Ash-Shaikh At-Tusi, Muhammad Bin Al-Hassan.


Besides other books, he wrote a book on Rijal in which he wrote about those who reported the Traditions from the Prophet (SAWW) and each of the Twelve Imams (AS). He also compiled a catalogue (Fahrist) of the Imamite writers. He died in 460 AH.


40.       Abul Abbas As-Sairafi, Ahmad Bin Muhammad Bion Nuh.


According Al-Fahrist of Ash-Shaikh, he wrote a book in this field about those persons who had carried the Traditions through Abi Abdullah (A.S) (Imam Jafar Sadiq A.S.) and added much to what Ibn Uqdah had written. An Najashi has said that As-Sairafi had great insight in matters relating to the traditions, and their reporters. According to An-Najashi he wrote Kitab-ul-Masabih in which he gave an account of those who reported the traditions from the Imams. He also compiled Kitab-uz-Ziyadat which is about the reporters who carried the Tradition from imam Jafar Sadiq (AS) and which he reported on the basis of information collected by Abi Abbas Bin Said. It may be added that Abi Abbas Bin Uqdah reported about four thousand reliable persons who reported the traditions from Imam Jafar Sadiq (A.S). He died during fifth century.


41.       Rashid-ud-Din Muhammad Bin Ali Bin Shahr Aashub Al-Mazandarania


He is the author of Maalim-ul-Ulama, which gives an account of various scholars and their lives. He died in 588 AH.


42.       Muntajib-ud-Din Ali Bin Ubaidullah Bin Babuyah.


He compiled a catalogue of the contemporaries of Ash-Shaikh At-Tusi till the time of his death. He died after 588 AH.


43.       Al-Hafiz Abu Abbdullah Muhammad Bin Abdullah Al-Qadai


He is usually known as Ibn-ul-Aabar Al-Andulusi. He wrote a complement to kitab-u-Silah of Ibn Bashkawa. He also compiled a Mujam on the companions of Al-Qaid Abu Ali As-Sadafi. Besides, he wrote Al-Hillat-us-Saira and A’tabul Kitab, the statement found in Nafh-ut-Tib on him indicates that he was a Shiite. He died in 658 AH.


44.       Al-Hassan Bin Ali Bin Dawud Al-Hilli


He is the author of a very famous book of Rijal. He was the first person to arrange the names along with the names of fathers and grandfathers. He included in his book all the information available in other books of Rijal, although he committed mistakes in tracing one’s genealogical tables, but not in his objections to Al-Alamah as though in Al-Amal. He died during seventh century.


45.       Ahmad Bin Musa Bin Jafar Bin Tawus Al-Alawi Al-Hassani.


            He is the author of Hall-ul-Ishkali Fi Marifat-ir-Rijal. He diedin 673 AH.


46.       Ali Bin Anjab, known as, Ibn-us-Sai Al-Baghdadi


He wrote a history of the poets of his age. Besides, he is the author of Akhbar-ul-Musannifin, Akhbar-ul-Khulafa, Akhbar-u-Qudat-i-Baghdad etc. etc. He died in 674 AH.


47.       As-Sayyid Abdul Karim Bin Ahmad Bin Tawus Al-Hassani.


He is the author Ash-Shamal-ul-Manzum Fi Musannifil Ulum which is unique work of its kind. He died in 603 AH.


48.       Kamal-ud-Din Abdur Razzaq Bin Ahmad Ash-Shaibani.


He is also known as Ibn-ul-Futi. He prepared Mujam-ul-Aadab Fi Majam-il-Asam Ala Mujam-il-Alqab. It is a remarkable book written in a wonderful manner. It spreads over fifty volumes. Out of these one big volume, written in the hand of the author himself is available in Al-Makatabat-uz-Zahirryah in Damascus. He also wrote Ad-Dawn-un-Nasiah Fi Shuara-i-Miat-is-Sabiah which is also in many volumes. Adh-Dhahabi has mentioned it in Tadhkiratul Huffaz. He was a Shiite as we have clarified while discussing his life. The editor of his book Al-Hawadith-ul-Jamiah made an incorrect conclusion at the time of its publication that the author was either a Shafiite or Hanabilite. He died in 723 AH.


49.       Al-Allamah Al-Hilli, Al-Hassan Bin Yusuf al-Mutahhar.


He is the author of three books in this field, namely Khullasat-ul-Aqwal, Kashfu-ul-Miqal Fi Ahwal-ir-Rijal and Iidah-ud-Istibah Fi Dabt-I-Asma-ir-Rijal. He died in 726 AH.


50.       Ash-Shahid-uth-Thani, Ash-Shaikh, Zain-ud-=Din bin Ali Al-Aamili


He wrote a commentary on Al-Khullasah which gives much useful information. He was martyhred in 966 AH.


51.       Ash-Shaikh Hassan Bin Ash-Shahid-ith-Thani.


He is the author of Al-Maalim. He prepard an abridged edition of Hall-ul-Ishkal written by Sayyid Ahmad Bin Tawus. There is much useful information about personalities and their lives in his book Muntaqal Juman. He died in 1011 AH.


52.       As-Sayyid Mirza Muhammad Bin Ali Bin Ibrahim Al-Astrabadi.


He is a well-known biographer and the author Manhij-ul-Miqal fi Ahwal-ir-Rijal which is usually known as Rijal-ul-Mirza al-Kabiur which is the most comprehensive and detailed book in this subject. There is available its condensed edition which is known as Al-Wasit. There is still another shorter edition which is known as As-Saghir. Accoding to Amal-ul-Aamil, there is no book on Rijal which is more comprehensive than the one we are discussing. The author of Naqd-ur-Rijal says that Mirjz made a thorough research in this matter and does not need any further addition. Is book is very well arranged and covers alal the names of various personalities as well as opinions about them, whether in praise or in condemnation. Hardly a name has been left out. He died in 1026 AH.


53.       Ash-Shaikh Muhammad Bin Jabir Bin Abbas Al Aamili Al Mashghari An Najafi


He was apupil of Mirza Astrabadi. He worte a book on Rijal as well as a treatise on nick names and titles. He died I during the eleventh century.


54.       As-Sayyid Mustafa Bin Al-Hussain Al Tafarishi


He is the author of a well known book, titled Naqd-ur-Rijal which contains much useful data and is distinguished for the account of alla those who were born aftrer Ash-Shaikh At-Tusi.


55.       Khudawidi was a classmate of At-Tafrishi during their lessons with Al-Mawla Abdullah At-Tustari. He wrate of Zubdat-ur-Rijal. He died during the eleventh century.


56.       Al-Mawla Inayat Ullah Bin Sharaf-ud-din Ali Al-Asbahani Al-Qahbani An-Najafi.


            He was the author of Majam-ur-Rijal. He also wrote notes on Naqd-ur-Rajal. He died during eleventh century.


57.       Ash-Shaikh Hassan Bin Ali Bin Ahmad Al-Hanini is the author of Nazm-ul-Jaman Fi Tarikh-il-Akabar-i-Wal-Ayan.


58.       Ash Shaikh Farj-Ullah Al-Hawaii


            He died in 1035 AH. He is the auithor of Iijaz-ul-Miqal Fi ilm-ir-Rijal. He died around 1035 AH


59.       As-Sayyid Muhammad Al-Baqir Ad-Damad Al-Asfahani.


            HE wrote Ar-Rawashihus Samawiyyah as well as notes and commentary on Muntahal Miql. He died in 1041 AH.


60.       Nizam-ud-Din Muhammad Bin Al-Hussain Al- Qarashi As-Sawuji


            He was a pupil of Ash-Shaikh Al-Bahai. He wrote Nizam-ul-Aqwal Fi Marifat-ir-Rijal. I have seen a copy of this written by the author himself in Jabal Aamil. He died during the eleventh century.


61.       Ash-Shaikh Abdun Nabi Al-Jazairi


            He is the author of Hawil Aqwal Fi Ilm-ir-Rijal. He died in the early eleventh century.


62.       Ash-Shaikh Fakhr-ud-Din At-Tarihi An-Najafi


            He wrote Jami-ul-Miqal Fima Yataalliqu Bil Hadith-i-war-Rijal. He diedin 1085 AH.


63.       As-Shaikh Muhammad Amin Bin Muhammad Ali Al-Kazimi was a pupil of At-Taqrihi and wrote a commentary on his teacher’s book on Rijal. He also wrote Hidayat-ul-Muhaddithin Ila Tariqat-il-Muhammadin. He died during the eleventh century.


64.       Muhammad Bin Mulla Al-Kashi


            He is known as Iim-ul-Huda. He wrote a Nadd-ul-Iidah whch is a kind of complement of Iadah-ul-Istibah written by Al-Allamah Al-Hilli. He was alive in 1100 AH.


65.       Ash-Shaikh Muhammad Bin Al-Hassan Bin Al-Hurr Al-Aamili


            He wrote a book on Rijal which he mentioned in the end of Wasail. He also wrote Amal-ul-Aamil Fi Ulama’i Jabal-i-Aamil etc. He died in 1104 Ah.


66.       Muha Dhdhib-ud-Din Ahmad Bin Rida


            He was pupil of Ash Shaikh Muhammad Bin Al Hassan mentioned above. He wrote Fa’iq-ul-Miqal Fil Hadith-i-War Rijal. He died during the eleventh century.


67.       As-Shaikh Muhammad Bair Muhammad Taqi Al Asfahani known as Al-Majlisi


            He wrote Al-Wajizah Fir Rijal. His death occurred in 1110 AH.


68.       Al-Hajja Muhammad Bin Ali Al-Ardbili was contemporary of Al-Majilisi. He wrote Jamiur Rawat on the pattern of Trahdhib ut Tahdib by Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani. He died during the eleventh century.


69.       As-Sayyid Ali Khan Ash Shirazi was the author of Salafatul Asr Fi Udaba’il-Asr and Ad-Darajat-ur-Rafiah Fi Tabaqat-ush-Shiah. He died in 118 or 1120 AH.


70.       Mirza Abdullah Al-Asfahani aliases Aafandi.


            He wrote Riyad-ul-Ulama in ten volumes, five of them are about the Shiite scholars after the minor absence of Twelefth Imam (atf (Al-Ghaibat-us-Sughra) and five volumes are about the Sunnite scholars. He died in 1120 AH.


71.       Ash Shaikh Sulaiman Ibn Ash-Shaikh Abdullah Al-Bahrani Al Mahuzi


            He wrote Al-Meraj, which is an explanation to the Al-Fahrist of Ash-Shaikh At-Tusi. He wrote Al-Balaghah Fir Rijal. He died in 1121 AH.


72.       As-Sayyid Yusuf Bin Yahya Al-Hassani Al-Yamani Az-Zaidi.


            He is the author of Nismatus Seher Fiman Tashayya’a Wa Sha’ar. This book is in two volumesw. We have got a copy in our library. He died in 1121 AH.


73.       As-Sayyid Abdullah Bin Nur-ud-Din Ne’mattullah Al-Jazairi.


            He has compiled an Ijazah containing all the biographical accounts available till that time, to which he has appended the accounts of scholars for 41 years from 1007 to 1138 AH. He died during the twelfth century.


74.       Ash-Shaikh Yusuf Bin Ahmad Bin Ibrahim Al-Baharani


            He wrote Lu’lu-ul Bahrain in which he collected a large biographical sketches of the scholars of the scholars. He died in 1187 AH.



75.       As-Sayyid Muhammad Hassan Bin Abdur Rasul Al-Husainin Az-Zannuri.


            He is the author of Riyaz-ul-Jannah, which contains biographical sketches, and geographical accounts of Iranian areas. A copy of this book is available in the library of the Irannian Ministry. A copy of this book is available in the library of the Iranian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. He died in the mid-twelfth century.


76.       Aqa Muhammad Baqir Al-Bahbahani is the author of the famous At-Taliqah (commentary) on Manhij-ul-Miqal, which contains very useful biographical data. He died in 1208 AH.


77.       As-Sayyid Hussain Ibn al-Amir Ibrahim Ibn Al-Amir Muhammad Masum Al-Qazwani wrote a book on biographical sketches, a part of which is avialble with us. He died in 1208 AH.


78.       As-Sayyid Mahdi At-Tabatabai was a student of As-Sayyid Hussain Al-Qazwini mentioned above. He was known as Bahr-ul-Ulum. He wrote a book on Rijal which has certain points of merit not found in other books. He died in 1212 AH.


79.       Muhammad Bin Ismail Al-Hairi alias Abu Ali wasthe author of Muntahal Maqal Fi Ahwal-ir-Rijal. He died during thirteenth century.


80.       Ash-Shaikh Abdun Nabi Al-Qazwini was apupil of Bahr-ul-Ulum. He wrote the complement to Amal-ul-Aamil. We have got a copy of it which we made in Tehran in 1353 AH. He died during the thirteenth century.


81.       Ash-Shaikh Muhsin Al-A’raji Al-Kazimi is commonly known as Al-Muhaqqiq-ul-Baghdadi. He wrote Al-Iddah Fir Rijal, a copy of which is available with us. He died in 1227 AH.


82.       Ash-Shaikh Abd-un-Nabi Al-Kazimi. He lived in Jabal Aamil. He wrote Takmilat-ur-Rijal, which is written as a note on Naqd-ur-Rijal of As-Sayyid Mustafa At-Tafrishi. We have got a copy of it. he died in 1256 AH.


83.       Ash-Sahikh Muhsin Bin Khanfar An-Najafi


            His students, As-Sayyid Muhammad Al-Hindi has said in Nazm-ul-Laal that hwas a unique personality in the field of the study ofRijal during his age. He diedi n 1270 AH.


84.       Ash-Shaikh Murtada Bin Muhammad Amin Al-Ansari Ash-Shushtari


            He wrote a book on Rijal, a copy of which I have seen in Al-Khazanah Ar-Ridawiyyah (at Mashhed). He died in 1281 AH.


85.       Ash-Shaikh Muhammad Hassan Al-Barfarushi Al-Mazandarani


            He completed Natijat-ul-Miqal Fi Ilm-ir-Rijal in 1284 AH.


86.       Mirza Muhammad Ali Bin Sadiq Bin Mahdi Al-Kashmiri Al-Lakhnawi


            He wrote Nujum-us-Sama Fi Tarajim-il-Ulama in Persian. It is printed. Its composition started in 1286 AH.


87.       Mirza Muhammad Bin Sulaiman At-Tankabani wrote Qisas-ul-Ulama in Persian, which has been printed. He died in 1302 AH.

88.       Ash-Shaikh Muhammad Ali Aal Izzu-Din Al-Aamili


            He wrote a book on the lives of scholars which I saw written in his own hands. It was lost during the disturbance in Jabal Aamil whihctook place in our age. He diedin 1303 AH.


89.       Ash-Shaikh Ali Bin Muhammad Ali-Aamili Al-Kafrawi.


            He was the historian of Jabal Aamil. He wrote Al-Jawahar-ul-Mujarrad which is an explanation of a poem composed by Ali Bay Al-Asad in which he has given life accounts of may scholars of Jabal Aamil who were contemporaries to him or lived before his times but were not included in any book. He has also given the history of well-known families and incidents. But this is what is heard. We have not seen thiws book. It might have been lost like many other niceties of Jabal Aamil on account of bad luck or his decendents have clung to this book and do not let it be seen which will also amount to being lost. He died in 1303 AH.


90.       Ash-Shaikh Mulla Ali Al-Kanni At-Tehrani An-Najafi


            He wrote Tawdih-ul-Miqal Fi Ilm-ir-Rijal. He died in 1306 AH.


91.       As-Sayyid Muhammad Baqir Al-Asfahani


            He is the author of a voluminous book titled Rawadat-ul-Jinan, which deals with lives of scholars and sayyids. It has been published. He died in 1313 AH.


92.       Ash-Shaikh Mirza Hussain An-Nuri


            He is an expert biographer. There are many biographical pieces in his book Dar-us-Salam. Similarly in the end of his book Mustadrakat-ul-Wasail he has given very valuable information about various personalities and their lives. He died in 1320 AH.


93.       Ash-Shaikh Muhammad Taha Aal Najaf At-Tabrizi An-Najafi


            He is the author of Ittiqan-ul-Miqal Fi Ahwal-ir-Rijal. It is a printed book. The author died in 1323 AH.


94.       As-Sayyid Muhammad Bin Hashim Al-hindi An-Najafi


            He is the author of Naam-ul-Laal Fi Ilm-ir-Rijal. He died in 1323 AH.


95.       Ash-Shaikh Muhammad Bin Abbud Al-Kufi Al-Khitab Al-Hairi


            He finished writing Ash-Shajarat-ut-Tayyibah fi Ahwal-il-Ulama-il-Muntajibah in 1340 AH.


96.       Ash-Shaikh Ali Bin Hassan Bin Ali Bin Sulaiman Al-Biladi Al-Bahrani is the author of Nur-ul-Badrain Fi Ulama-il-Ahsa-i-wal-Qatif wal Bahrain. We have two copies of this book one of which is original one. The author died in 1340 AH.


97.       The editors of the book Danishwaran-e-Nasiri Fi Tarajim-il-Ulama compiled it in Persian under instructions from the king of Iran Nasir-ud-Din Shah Qachar in many big volumes. They have finalized the first one which has been published. This is about 1296 AH.


98.       As-Sayyid Muhammad Baqir Al-Mudarris Ar-Ridawi


            He is the author of Ash-Shajarat-ut-Tayyibah Fi Alwal-is-Sadat-ir-Ridawiyyah. It is written in Persian. We have seen the original copy in Mashhad (Iran)


99.       Ash-Shaikh Muhammad Bin Mahdi Aal Mughniyyah Al Aamili


            He is the author of Jawahir-ul-Hikam in which there are life accounts of his contemporaries, literary pieces, historical discussion etc. Had this book been well arranged and edited, Al-Aqd-ul-Mufasal by As-Sayyid Haider Al-Hilli would not have been better.


100.     Mirza Abdul Hussain Khan At-Tabrizi


            He is a contemporary physician. He worte Matrah-ul-Anzar Fi Tarajim-i-Atibba-il-Asar. It is in Persian and has been published.


101.     Ash-Shaikh Ali Bin Ash-Shaikh Muhammad Rida An-Najafi


            HE is one of the descendents of the author Kashf-ul-Ghita. He has written Al-Husun-ul-Muniah Fi Tabqat-ish-Shiah. It is still in the manuscript stage. (In 1350 AH.)