Current Legal Issues
Apparently, it is not obligatory, although abstaining is advisable as a matter of ihtiyat.
On a second assumption, he said Dhuhr (noon) prayer in his home town, then travelled by air. He arrived at a town where the sun was yet to enter into decline [to the West]. Then it entered into decline.
On a third one, he said Maghrib (sunset) prayer in his home town, then travelled arriving at a town where the sun has not yet set. Then sunset happened.
There is more than one course of action. However, as a matter of ihtiyat, they should be performed with the niyyah of ma fith thimmah, meaning in a more general sense than performing them adaa’ or qadhaa’.
In case, however, time was pressing, he should perform his prayer aboard the plane. If he was able to locate the direction of qibla, he should face that direction. His prayer would not be in order if he breaks the condition of direction, unless for a necessity. In this case, he should move towards the direction of the qibla whenever the aeroplane moves [in the opposite direction]; he should abstain from recitation during the time of moving. If it was not possible to set his face to the qibla, he should take account of the fact that it should be between right and left. If it was not possible to ascertain the direction of qibla, he should do his best to try to identify it and act according to what he has reached of guess work. If this was not feasible, he should perform his prayer facing any direction that might contain the qibla. As a matter of ihtiyat, however, he should perform his prayers once in each of [the] four directions..
This is being so if he was able to face the qibla, otherwise saying (takbiratul ihraam) - Allah is Great [one of the main parts of prayer, after niyyah] would do. If neither is possible, the condition regarding facing qibla ceases to be operative.
However, as a matter of strong possibility (al aqwa), it is permissible to board an aeroplane and the like as a matter of choice before the onset [of prayer], albeit with the knowledge that he would be obliged to perform prayer on board, not fulfilling the two conditions of facing the qibla and maintaining a stable position.
If, for example, the space craft orbited the earth at three-hour intervals or less, evidently it is not obligatory to perform prayers at every dawn, noon, and sunset. As a matter of ihtiyat, one should perform prayers at twenty-four hour cycles with the niyyah of alqurbal mutlaqah. To do so, one should take into consideration the occurrence of Subh prayer between two dawns, Dhuhr and Asr between a noon and a sunset that follows it, and Maghrib and Isha between a sunset and a midnight that follows it.
To sum up, if the movement of the craft was from the West to East and its speed was equivalent to that of the earth, evidently prayers should be performed at their prescribed times. Similarly, if its speed was less than that of the earth, or it was much more than that of the earth, such as the cycle is completed every three hours, the rules that should be applied are as discussed in the preceding paragraph.
Evidently, it is permissible.
As a matter of ihtiyat, it is the case.
The new moon of Shawwal was sighted in a town and Eid (festivities marking the end of the fasting season) was celebrated. Then the mukallaf made a journey to another town, where the moon has not yet been sighted for difference of their horizons. As a matter of ihtiyat, abstaining from eating and drinking should be maintained for the rest of that day. Fasting could be performed at later date.
The mukallaf is in a town that has day and night in a twenty-four hour cycle. The proportion, however, of day and night is such that day light is twenty-three hours and night time is one hour, or vice versa. The rules regarding prayer times should follow the sequence of day and night.
As for fasting Ramadhan, it should be performed as best as he could. Otherwise, it does not become obligatory. If it was possible to fast in lieu, it becomes obligatory. If not, fidya for not fasting becomes due.