Rulings Of Our Great Jurists Concerning The Shaving Of The
Abu Al-Qasim Al-Khui
Unlawful as a
Abu Al-A’Ala Al-Sabzwari
· In dissimulation
· For medical
· To save the
dignity of Islam.
Beard urdu lecture Fiqh Dr Abid |
Beard Q in
Contemporary legal rulings book
Some men shave their beard & leave some hair on the chin
alone. Is this sufficient by the shariëah?
Answer: [It is not
sufficient]. (FM, p. 434)
Book A Code of Practice for Muslims in the West
If a person commits harãm by shaving his beard by razor
baled on day one, is it permissible for him to do the same
on the second, the third, the fourth day & so on?
Answer: It is precautionary compulsory to refrain
At times the big companies in Europe discriminate —among
those who come to them seeking jobs— between those who shave
their beards & those who don’t shave them. If this is
true, then is it permissible to be clean shaven in order to
get the job?
Answer: Shaving the beard —whose prohibition is
based on obligatory precaution— would not become permissible
just by the desire to get a job with these companies.
Question: Is French-cut beard permissible,
according to Islamic Sharia?
Answer: Based on obligatory precaution it is
not permissible for a man to shave his beard.
Similarly, it is not permissible for him to just
leave the hair on his chin and shave the sides. This
too is based on obligatory precaution.
Is it permissible to shave the two sides of the face & leave the hair on the chin?
Answer: Shaving the beard is haram based on
obligatory precaution, & this includes the hair that grows
on the sides of the face. However, there is no problem in
shaving the hair that grows on the cheeks.
Perspective Of The Beard
Download Word File
Translation of Tahrim Halq Al-Lihyah -
(Unlawfulness Of The Shaving Of The Beard)
Allamah Murtada Al-Baghdadi
Shaykh Mubashir Ali
Shaykh Muhammad Amin
Islam is a
religion that has a culturally diverse composition.
Believers belong to many racial & regional groups bound
together by essential beliefs & practices. Many of these
are clearly indicated & detailed in the source material
for Islamic behavior, the Holy Qur’an & the Sunnah of the
Holy Prophet (saww), so that no Muslim doubts the
obligation to enact them. The daily prayers, fasting, etc…
are regulated for , in general terms, in the Holy Qur’an
and, in detail, by the Sunnah. Thus, for instance, all
schools of Islamic law believe that something should be
recited in the prostration and, although they vary in what
should be said, all Muslims recite. It is sufficient for
them that this is what the Prophet (saww) was seen to do.
However, when the issue is the beard people who accept all
manner of acts as cultural beliefs as “Islamic” demand detailed
& incontrovertible proof that Allah, the Most
Merciful, wished His Holy Prophets & their devoted
followers to retain beards. If this cannot be proven, are
they truly content to believe in “coincidence”?, a
coincidence by which, in the general perception, Muslim men
& orthodox people of the Book are differentiated from
unbelievers. If the readers doubt the importance of the
beard as a means of recognition, I ask them to submit to the
Imagine that you have an urgent question about the religion
& that that you have been directed to the room of a
scholar. In the room you find two men seated. Both of
similar age. Both of similar dress. Both wearing hats. One
has a well trimmed beard & the other does not. To which
one would you be inclined to address your question?.
The following text gives substantial proofs & reasons for
the desirability of the beard that conform to both faith &
rationality but being a work concerning jurisprudence & Sunnah it does not stress the universality, amongst the
Muslim brotherhood, of the beard as a sign of faith, as a
symbol of brotherhood. Whatever clothes or customs have been
retained by a nation it has become a social norm for the
beard to be grown. It was to stress this aspect that I felt
obliged to write this short preface & also as an
opportunity to ask the reader to join me in asking Allah,
the Most Generous, to reward the author, the translator & their teachers for sharing their knowledge for our benefit.
May it, by the grace of The Merciful, be a great reward in
this world & the next.
booklet has been translated for the enlightenment of those
who are not, as yet, fully aware of the Islamic rulings
concerning the beard. It is in no way whatsoever meant to
offend those who do not wear a beard nor should it be used,
in any way, as an instrument by those who do wear one to
ridicule those who do not.
We as Muslims must realize that non other than Allah, the
Exalted, the Mighty, can guide those who may have gone
astray. However, it is the solemn duty of the Messengers,
the Prophets, the Chosen Infallible leaders & the
believers amongst the men & the women to admonish one
another, to forbid evil & enjoin good. No one other than
those who sincerely love each other will.
This is verified by a narration from our third
Imam Al-Husayn b. Ali (AS) where he states:
who loves you will indeed guide you & one who hates
you will indeed mislead you”
Furthermore, it is the duty of any individual who claims to
have accepted the blessed religion of Islam, as his way of
life, to make an effort towards realizing who his Creator is
& the duties he, in turn, has to fulfill for his Creator,
based on the pledge he has made in testifying to the fact
that there is no One worthy of worship but Allah, the
Lord of the Universe, the Exalted, the Sublime, to whom is
his final return.
He should also realize that on
the day of reckoning he will be summoned before his Creator
as one who was considered to be from amongst those who
believed in Muhammad (saww), the leader of the Prophets & the seal of the Messengers
& his Infallible progeny (AS).
The soul searching questions one should ask oneself before
starting to read this booklet, bearing the above in mind,
.^. Am I deceiving my
own soul or am I being sincerely true to it?
Do I consider myself to be from amongst those who follow
the path shown to them by Allah who is their Lord & Master?
profoundest of all answers can only be attained from within.
That is because the soul is from amongst the most
trustworthy, truthful & honest companions that one can
rely upon in this world for the sincerest of answers.
This will in-turn lead the individual to have certitude & inner satisfaction. This will ultimately prepare him in this
world for the next world from which there is no return.
We sincerely beseech Allah, the Exalted, to show the reality
& the truth to all those whom He has created, especially
those who believe in His Majesty, His last Messenger
Muhammad (saww) & his Infallible progeny (AS) so that
their final objective becomes His contentment with them as
His humble servants.
the name of The Most High
The Four Sources On Which All The Rulings Of
Islam Are Based
common question usually asked regarding the beard is whether
it is permissible to shave it or not. We will try to answer
this question based on the four sources upon which our whole
religion is based.
The Four Sources Are:
1. The Holy
Qur’an: revealed unto Muhammad (saww) by Allah,
the Exalted, the Wise.
The Traditions of our Holy Prophet Muhammad (saww) &
his progeny (AS): (these include their sayings,
actions & tacit consent)
as a strict condition the Shi’ite jurists must include
at least one authentic narration of an Infallible Imam
(AS) for it to be considered as a basis from which a
revealed ruling can be derived. This differs from the
consensus of the other schools of thought in so far as
their derived ruling through consensus does not have to
be based on the condition mentioned above.
Intellect: There is no doubt that all our
revealed rulings are derived & based on these four
sources. However, as far as morality & human etiquette
are concerned, & as far as our subject matter is
concerned, what better source can there be than the
noble life style of Prophet Muhammad (saww) & that
of his blessed family (AS).
conclusion that one would reach, after having understood
this, would be that the lay person would have to learn & fulfill the basic fundamental rulings of Islam. These
rulings are categorized as obligatory (wajib),
recommended (mustahab), prohibited (haram),
disapproved (makruh) & permissible (mubah).
The validity of all these categories are proven on the basis
of the four sources mentioned earlier.
Martyr Baqir Al-Sadr (may Allah rest his soul)
Blessed, the Exalted, will ask His servant on
the day of reckoning as to whether he was from
amongst the learned ones or the ignorant ones;
if he claims to be from the learned ones then he
will be asked as to why he did not practice what
he knew, but if he then replies by saying that
he was from amongst the ignorant ones Allah, the
Blessed, the Exalted, will ask him as to why he
did not acquire knowledge so that he could
practice what was obligatory for him to perform.
(When he is unable to reply to) Allah’s
questioning him in this manner, he will be
worthy of being punished by Allah because of his
ignorance which lead him to being disobedient
Of The Beard
definition refers to the hair which grows on the face
naturally (i.e. the sides of the face & the chin).
Aspects Regarding The Beard
The beard is a part of the male anatomy which
beautifies, gives respectability & adorns the man. (That
is only when it is kept in good trim).
2. The beard is a
natural inherent part of the biological characteristics
of the male gender of the human being, its purpose is to
differentiate between the male & the female. This very
conclusion is also derived by logical reasoning & intellect. We should also bear in mind that the
intellect is one of the most important factors which
separates the human being from the other animal species.
3. In answer to the
supplication made by our grandfather Adam (AS), Allah,
the Blessed, the Exalted, made the growth of the beard
an in-built natural feature of the male, a feature which
will continue being such till the day of reckoning.
Majlisi (May Allah have mercy on his soul) quotes in a
narration, in Vol. 16 of his book Bihar Al-Anwar (Seas
of Illuminations) on the authority of Ibn Masud in
which the Holy Prophet of Islam Muhammad (saww)
“When Allah, the Blessed, the Merciful, accepted the
repentance of Adam (saww), Gabriel (AS) came to Adam (saww)
“May Allah grant
you a (long) life & bestow beauty upon you”
Adam (saww) then said,
“I understand what you mean by long life, however, I do not
understand what you mean by beauty”
[Thus, in thanking Allah,
his Lord & Master] he went into prostration & when he
raised his head from it, he made a supplication & said,
Increase in me the beauty [that you have promised
soon after he had made the
supplication a beautiful beard appeared on his radiant face.
When Gabriel (AS) witnessed what had happened, he touched
the beard of prophet Adam (saww) & said,
“This is in
response to the supplication you made to your Lord,
& it has been granted to you & your male
offspring till the day of reckoning”.
evident from this narration that the beauty which Allah, the
Blessed, the Exalted, bestowed upon Adam (saww) in the
form of a beard would remain for him & his male offspring
till the day of reckoning.
The shaving of the beard in general is considered to be from
amongst those actions which the Lawgiver (Allah) has indeed
considered unlawful. This is to such an extent, that it is
regarded a sin by which an individual may be considered
worthy of being punished. As far as some of the rulings
which the Lawgiver has ordained for His servants, whether
they find them difficult to resist or difficult to perform,
they are still taken into account as far His pious servants
are concerned, the main reason for that is the strong faith
His loyal pious servants have with regard to His commands
& prohibitions. They know that their Creator, Allah, the
All Mighty, the Blessed, the Exalted, knows & does what is
best for His humble servants.
Source: The Book Of Allah (Al-Qur’an)
& most certainly I (Shaytan) will lead them astray
& excite in them vain desires, & bid them that
they shall slit the ears of the cattle, & most
surely I will bid them so that they shall alter
Allah’s creation, & whoever takes the Satan for
a guardian rather than Allah he indeed shall suffer
a manifest loss. Chapter 4 (The Women / Al-Nisa)
verse to be taken into consideration as a basis for proving
the unlawfulness of the shaving of the beard, two
fundamental aspects have to be taken into account:
Proving the fact that the shaving of the beard is in
reality considered “altering the creation of Allah”.
Proving the fact that every “alteration” that occurs
within the creation is in fact considered unlawful.
Except for when the issue of “alteration” is
superseded by another ruling from amongst the
rulings of the Islamic Shariah which are considered
exemptions to the rule.
As far as
the first aspect is concerned, there is no doubt about the
fact that the shaving of the beard is looked upon as
bringing about an unnatural alteration with regard to what
Allah, the Exalted, has created naturally.
As we mentioned earlier, the
appearance of the beard was a specific miraculous event that
Allah, the Exalted, ordained. When this is the case, no one
has the authority to alter that except Allah, the Exalted,
Himself & this can only be achieved by Him issuing another
decree which abrogates the former.
The reason for this would be that the beard is considered by
Allah a thing of adornment & beauty for His Prophet Adam
(AS). Moreover, not only a thing of adornment & beauty for
Adam (AS) but also for his male offspring till the day of
Based on this any unnatural alteration to the beard would be
considered forbidden & unlawful within the Islamic Shariah,
except for when an exemption to the rule supersedes the
As for the second aspect, It would be appropriate for one to
interpret the part of the verse where “alter the creation
of Allah” is mentioned to mean every type of alteration.
However, in cases where other rulings, from within the
Shariah, exempt what is considered to be part of “every
alteration” such as, circumcision, trimming of the
nails, trimming of the hair of the head, trimming the beard
& the moustache, the ruling of alteration will not be
Hence, the above mentioned alterations would not be
considered as being part of the interpretation of the verse
mentioned earlier, but rather, they would be based on the
ruling of the exemptions to the rule from within the shariah.
implications of the above mentioned verse apply to
“unnatural physical alteration” & not to alteration due to
the rulings of exemption. Thus, to consider the likes of
tattoos or nail varnish as things that cause unnatural
alteration is inappropriate, hence, for one to consider them
as acts which are unlawful would also be incorrect.. The
reason for this is that the verse implicitly refers to the
alteration of the natural physical state & to non other.
In Tafsir Al-Qummi, Imam Ja’far Al-Sadiq (AS) gives
an explanation which refers to the exemptions to the rule.
is finer in religion than someone who submits himself to
Allah while he acts kindly & follows the sect of
Abraham, the Upright one? Allah adopted Abraham as a
bosom friend”. Chapter 4 (The Women / Al-Nisa) Verse 125
Ja’far Al-Sadiq (AS) explained that Allah, the Blessed,
granted ten things to Abraham (saww) (Al-Hanif) [things
that purify], five were for the head & five were for the
Those for the head were:
Trimming the moustache
2. Wearing the beard
3.Trimming the hair of the head
4. Brushing the teeth
5. Flossing the teeth
& those for the body were:
2. Trimming the nails
3. Cleansing the body with water
4. Shaving the under arm & pubic hair
5. Ceremonial bath (after sexual intercourse etc.)
things which Allah, the Exalted, granted Abraham (saww)
were similar to what He granted Prophet Adam (p.b.u..h) in
the form of the beard.
The important point we should bear in mind here is, that
those things which were granted to Abraham (saww) & Adam
(saww) were not abrogated nor will they be abrogated
till the day of reckoning.
This verse is evidence of the fact that whatever Allah, the
Exalted, granted Abraham (AS) remained so for Prophet
Muhammad (saww) also. This is the reason why we as
Muslims still (try to) adhere to the same practices.
On analyzing this narration & many more like it, one may
find that some of the actions mentioned in one single
narration may be categorized as actions that are
recommended, while other actions mentioned in the same
narration may be categorized as actions which are
obligatory. This is only possible when a jurist refers to
many other similar narrations, & after his painstaking
research, he categorizes them accordingly.
Second Source: The Tradition (Al-Sunnah)
Al-Walibiyah states in Al-Kafi:
once saw the Commander of the faithful, Ali (AS)
strolling in the courtyard with a two pronged staff
& he was striking the fishmongers with it, who were
selling fish which were unlawful to eat. & at the
same time he was saying to them: O’ Fishmongers,
you are similar to those who were from amongst the
Banu Israil who were transformed (into apes), &
similar to those who used to shave their beards &
lengthen their moustaches from amongst the soldiers
of Banu Marwan (who transgressed in the land).
fish mongers had shaven their beards & were only wearing
There is no doubt in that the narration is pointing to the
shaving of the beard as being unlawful, the reasoning for
this is that the people being reprimanded by the Commander
of the faithful , Ali (AS) in such a strong manner only
points to the fact that an unlawful act was being committed,
& it was the solemn duty of the Imam of the time to forbid
such evil & enjoin good.
By scrutinizing this narration we understand that if the
actions of the people who were being reprimanded were not
unlawful, then there is no doubt that their actions would at
least be considered actions which were disapproved of,
however, for one to be transformed (into apes) by the wrath
of Allah, the Mighty, for performing actions which are
disapproved of does not make sense. Thus, it is inevitable
that an action such as that which has been sited in the
narration (i.e. the shaving of the beard) can only be
regarded as an action which is unlawful & not an action
which is merely disapproved of.
In the book Al-Ja’fariyyat a narration of the Holy
Prophet (saww) has been quoted in which the Prophet
“The shaving of the beard is indeed considered an
unjust action, may the curse of Allah befall those
who are unjust”.
the shaving of the beard is considered an “injustice”
& its subject deserving to be cursed by Allah, the Mighty,
then this would indeed point to the fact that Allah, the
Mighty, is displeased with the person who commits an
injustice, so much so that he becomes deserving of His
wrath. This would not
in any way whatsoever contradict logic. The other fact is
that we do not find any verdict, of any jurist which
considers an unjust action to be lawful.
Hence, if the shaving of the beard is compared to an action
which is unjust, then it is clear that the shaving of the
beard, based on the narration of the Holy Prophet (saww), is
Al-Saduq sites a narration of the Holy Prophet
(saww) in which he states:
moustaches & let your beards grow & do not
emulate the Jews”
narration is considered authentic by the Shi’ah & the Sunni
schools of thought. Based on one of the principles of the
science of jurisprudence (Usul Al-Fiqh), the
indication of a sentence with the imperative construction (Al-Amr)
usually implies that an action is obligatory & the
prohibitive construction (Al-Nahy) of a sentence
usually implies that an action is unlawful.
This is especially the case when the action in question
refers to the emulation of the enemies of Islam, i.e. the
Jews & the infidels. Thus, the result which a jurist may
derive based on this would be that the shaving of the beard
or letting it grow to the extent that the Jews let it grow
to, would certainly be considered unlawful & the trimming of
the moustache would be considered an action which was
In the book Al-Muntaqa the following has been
reported: “Chosroe (Kasra the king of Persia) once
sent two of his ambassadors to the Holy Prophet (saww). When
they approached him, he looked at their moustaches & saw
that they were very lengthy & they had no beards, thus, he
turned to them & said:
be to you regarding what you have performed”
(i.e. having shaved their beards).
They said: “Our master commanded us to do
this”, the Holy Prophet (saww) then said:
“My Master, the Blessed, the Exalted, commanded me
to wear my beard & trim my moustache”.
clearly understood from this narration that Allah, the
Blessed, the Exalted, commanded His Prophet (saww) to wear a
Allah, the Mighty, the Wise, mentions the authority of the
utterances of His Prophet Muhammad (saww) in the Qur’an as:
“Whatever the Messenger gives you, accept it & from
whatever he forbids you (from doing) keep back”.
Chapter 53 (The Banishment / Al-Hashr) Verse 3-4
reported in Bihar Al-Anwar in the chapter concerning
the beard (Kitab Al-Mahasin) in which Imam Musa b.
Ja’far, Al-Kazim (AS) was asked:
“Is it recommended to wear the beard?”
he said: “Yes”,
then he was asked: “Is it permissible for one to
shave one’s beard?”,
Imam (AS) replied: “It is permissible to shave
the sides of the face where the beard grows,
however, to shave the front (chin) is not
There are numerous other narrations concerning the
unlawfulness of the shaving of the beard. Whoever wishes to
refer to them should refer to: “Wasail Al-Shi’ah” in
which matters regarding the unlawfulness of the shaving of
the beard will become clearer.
Source: Consensus (Al-Ijma’)
Shi’ah & the Sunni schools of thought agree that the verdict
derived through consensus with regards to the shaving of the
beard being unlawful is well founded.
The reason for this as far as both schools of thought are
concerned is that “consensus” is considered a source
by which a jurist may give a ruling concerning an Islamic
Consensus is relied upon as one of the sources when a
verdict regarding an issue can not be derived through any
other available source. However, one main difference between
the consensus of the Shi’ah & the Sunni schools of thought
is that, as far as the Shi’ah are concerned, it is necessary
for them to have at least one tradition of an Infallible
Imam(AS) as an integral part of the consensus for it to be
considered a valid source for the derivation of an Islamic
ruling. Nevertheless this is not the case as far as the
Sunni school of thought is concerned.
Shaykh Al-Baha’iy, Al-Damad & Kashif Al-Ghita’ are gr&
Shi’ite jurists, who have given rulings to the unlawfulness
of the shaving of the beard, based on consensus, in their
books Al-I’tiqadat & Resalah Al-Shar’ Al-Muqadas.
Fourth Source: The Intellect (Al-Aql)
several logically derived views that point to the fact that
shaving the beard is unlawful, However, we are only going to
present a few of them herein.
.^. When Allah. the
Blessed, the Exalted, first created the human being, He
granted him & his male offspring the beard as a result of
his supplication to Him. The reason for this was that
through the appearance of a beard on the face, there would
be a clear distinction between the male & the female
offspring of Adam (AS) till the day of reckoning.
This is verified by our sixth Imam, Imam Al-Sadiq (AS)
in one of his narration’s in which he states:
“From amongst the laws of the Lord of the Universe
was that He granted the male gender from amongst the
humans a beard so that there may be a difference (in
appearance) between them”.
another of his narration’s Imam Al-Sadiq (AS) states:
“If the hair (on the mans face) were not to grow
within a specific given period, would the male not
remain in a state like that of the young immature
boy & a female?, & as a result of this, the male
would not comm& any respect nor esteem”.
.^. Ibn Sina in
his book Al-Qanun states:
“Indeed the benefits of the beard being specifically
associated to the male & not the female points to
the fact that, respect, male beauty & esteem are
required by the male more than the female”.
statement confirms the discussion mentioned earlier
concerning Adam (AS) & the supplication he made to Allah,
the Exalted, His Lord & Master.
.^. Intellect dictates
that every potential harm should be averted instantly. The
result being that the aversion of harm would be considered
an act which would come under the category of the obligatory
rulings in the rulings of Islamic law. This ruling would
fundamentally be based on the intellect. This, then would be
considered a source by which an answer to our question could
We see that when the leader of the Prophets, doctors & wise
men, Muhammad (saww) forbade the Muslims (or rather the
hypocrites who claimed that they were Muslims) from
performing certain acts which Allah considered unlawful
within the fold of Islam, many sarcastic questions were
raised as to why a particular action was unlawful, & even
after satisfactory explanations were given the individuals
still disobeyed the commands of Allah, the Exalted.
However, if one were to read the Qur’an, one would see that
Allah, the Exalted, clarifies the state regarding the
utterances of prophet Muhammad (saww):
“& whatever the Messenger gives you, accept it, &
from whatever he forbids you, keep back, & be
careful of (your duty to) Allah, indeed Allah is
severe in retributing (evil)” - Chapter 59
(The Banishment/Al-Hashr):Verse 7
another verse Allah, the Exalted, states:
“He does not speak from his own desire but it is
revealed upon him” Chapter 53 (The Star/Al-Najm)
learned scholars of the West agree to the fact that the
Prophet of Islam, Muhammad (saww) was the great man of his
era & in character, a perfect example of a compassionate
individual for all times to come.
It is proven that all heavenly rulings are not issued forth
without having inherent infinite wisdom within them, thus,
one should understand that it is only after Allah, the
Blessed, the Exalted, knows about the inherent infinite
wisdom, intellect & goodness which may be inherent within a
ruling, that He finally conveys it to His humble servants
through His Prophets & Messengers (May Allah bless them
Other Names Given To The Beard In The Arabic Language
in the Arabic language has also been termed as Al-Karimah,
meaning a precious thing & Al-Mahasin, meaning a
thing which beautifies. If this is the case, then who would
deny beauty if it were to be offered to him?, who would be
prepared to impersonate a female? & who would prefer to
forget his original creation?.
Western Views Concerning The Beard
One view is
that the wearing of a beard strengthens the teeth & gums.
Sujan Afindi Al-Marwani quotes in his book (History of
America) Vol. 160 Dr. Victor George as saying:
“The beard saves the face from the wet, protects the teeth &
“We once shaved
the beards of all the rail workers in our region
in summer & found that most of them suffered
from tooth ache & sores in the gums”
“When persons who
had been protected from the cold at the North
pole came back to Engl& & shaved their beards
they noticed that they had all become ill soon
after that ”.
who had recently testified to his belief in the tenants of
Islam, was suddenly afflicted by a severe attack of facial
acne. He, of course, sought the help of his doctor who,
after an examination prescribed a three month course of
antibiotics but added that the treatment might not succeed.
An appointment was made for four weeks later to monitor
Early in the fourth week the brother became convinced that
growing a beard was a desirable act for a Muslim & stopped
shaving. When he returned to see his doctor he was asked,
“Are you growing a beard ?” “Yes!” he said,
“it is for religious purposes, for life, & I will only
shave again if there is no possible alternative. So will it
affect my condition?”
“It will affect your condition”. Said the doctor, who
was a Hindu, “When I saw your face today I said, thank
god for a sensible patient, to myself. You see every time a
razor passes across the face it causes damage to the skin &
if as in your case, there is an existing infection it causes
re-infection which if difficult to treat. Even when there is
no infection it increases the possibility of one starting.
If you keep it trimmed & clean you have increased the
chances of successful treatment by about 80%. So , while I
do not agree with your reasons for growing it, I am happy to
see it & have absolutely no intention of suggesting that you
By a combination of medicine & following the Sunnah the
brother required no subsequent treatment.
Al-Mahdi Institute of Islamic Studies
532 Moseley Road, Balsall Heath
Birmingham, B12 9AE.
Tel: 44 121 446 5047 Fax: 44 121 440 5085
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